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Focal Cortical Dysplasia in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • R. Kuzniecky
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 264)

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved to be extremely useful in the detection of central nervous system pathology (Brant-Zawadzki et al, 1983). Its value in the investigation of patients with epilepsy has been confirmed by our studies (Kuzniecky et al., 1988; Berkovic et al, 1991) and by those of others (Jack et al., 1990; Bronen et al., 1991; Theodore, 1986; Duncan, 1990). In the majority of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy the underlying pathological substrate is mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). This abnormality can be detected by MRI in almost all cases, if the appropriate techniques are used (Kuzniecky et al., 1987). The typical imaging findings consist of hippocampal and amygdaloid atrophy, increased T2-weighted signal from the abnormal hippocampi and loss of internal structure of the hippocampal formation. Other pathological abnormalities include glial and non-glial neoplasms, vascular malformations, post-traumatic changes and other conditions (Avrahami et al., 1987; Altman, 1988; Bracchi, 1988). A less common pathological entity encountered in patients with intractable partial seizures is focal cortical dysplasia (Kuzniecky et al, 1991). It is characterised by a lack of cortical organisation associated with abnormal giant neurons and increased astrocytosis (Taylor et al., 1971; Kuzniecky et al., 1991). Although this anomaly was originally reported in 1971 by Taylor et al., it was not until recently that other investigators reported similar findings in surgical specimens from other brain regions. As high-resolution MRI is sensitive in the detection of subtle lesions, it has been possible to detect pre-operatively these developmental lesions in some patients selected for resective surgery. Recognition of these peculiar and often subtle abnormalities in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy has increased the value of MRI in the pre-surgical investigation of these patients.

Keywords

Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Hippocampal Sclerosis Focal Cortical Dysplasia Cortical Dysplasia Left Temporal Lobe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Kuzniecky
    • 1
  1. 1.UAB Epilepsy Center Department of NeurologyUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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