Hormone Studies and the Diet and Breast Cancer Connection

  • Barry R. Goldin
  • Sherwood L. Gorbach
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 364)


The incidence rates for breast cancer vary widely in different parts of the world. The disease is more common in North America, Australia and Western Europe, relative to South and Central America, Asia and Africa.1-3 Epidemiologic studies which relate per capita consumption of various dietary constituents to international variations in breast cancer incidence provide the most consistent evidence for an association between diet and breast cancer.4-7 A significant positive association between total fat consumption and breast cancer incidence or mortality was found in all seven studies in which total dietary fat was reported. Among other dietary components that were compared to breast cancer rates, positive correlations with total calories, meat, sugar and specific fatty foods and negative correlations with cereals, beans, rice, maize and pulses were observed.7


Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Risk Dietary Fiber Breast Cancer Incidence Fecal Excretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gray, G.E., M.C. Pike, and B.E. Henderson, Breast-cancer incidence and mortality rates in different countries in relation to known risk factors and dietary practices, Br. J. Cancer 39:1 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hems, G., Epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer in middle and late age, Br. J. Cancer 24:226 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Armstrong, B. and R. Doll, Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries with special reference to dietary practices, Int. J. Cancer 15:617 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carroll, K.K., E.B. Gammal, and E.R. Plunkett, Dietary fat and mammary cancer, Can. Med. Assoc. J. 98:590 (1968).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lea, A.J., Dietary factors associated with death-rates from certain neoplasms in man, Lancet ii:332 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wynder, E.L., Identification of women at high risk for breast cancer, Cancer 24:1235 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goodwin, P.J. and N.E Boyd, Critical appraisal of the evidence that dietary fat intake is related to breast cancer risk in humans, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 79:473 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ingram, D.M., Trends in diet and breast cancer mortality in England and Wales 1928-1977, Nutr. Cancer 3:75 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunn, J.E., Breast cancer among American Japanese in the San Francisco Bay area, Monogr. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47:157 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Willett, W.C., M.J. Stampfer, G.A. Colditz, B.A. Rosner, C.H. Hennekens, and F.E. Speizer, Dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer, N. Engl. J. Med. 316:22 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Willett, W.C, D.J. Hunter, M.J. Stampfer, G. Colditz, J.E. Manson, D. Spiegelman, B. Rosner, C.H. Hennekens, and F.E. Speizer, Dietary fat and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer. An 8-year follow-up, JAMA 268:2037 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Phillips, R.L. and D.A. Snowden, Association of meat and coffee use with cancers of the large bowel, breast and prostate among Seventh-Day Adventists: Preliminary results, Cancer Res. 43(Suppl):2403s (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hirayama, T., Epidemiology of breast cancer with special reference to the role of diet, Prev. Med. 7:173 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Phillips, R.L., Role of life-style and dietary habits in risk of cancer among Seventh-Day Adventists, Cancer Res. 35:3513 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Miller, A.B., A. Kelly, N.W. Choi, V. Matthews, R.W. Morgan, L. Munan, J.D. Burch, J. Feather, G.R. Howe, and M. Jain, A study of diet and breast cancer, Am. J. Epidemiol. 107:499 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Howe, G.R., The use of polytomous dual response data to increase power in case-control studies: an association between dietary fat and breast cancer, J. Chronic Diseases 38:663 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lubin, J.H., P.E. Burns, W.J. Blot, R.G. Ziegler, A.W. Lees, and J.F. Fraumeni Jr., Dietary factors and breast cancer risk, Int. J. Cancer 28:685 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee, H.P., L. Gourley, S.W. Duffy, J. Esteve, J. Lee, and N.E. Day, Risk factors for breast cancer by age and menopausal status: a case-control study in Singapore, Cancer Causes Control 3:313 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Howe, G.R., T. Hirohata, T.G. Hislop, K. Katsouyanni, F. Lubin, E. Marubini, B. Modan, T. Rohan, P. Toniolo, and Y. Shunzhang, Dietary factors and risk of breast cancer: combined analysis of 12 case-control studies, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82:561 (1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kelsey, J.L., A review of the epidemiology of breast cancer, Epidemiol Rev. 1:74 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Russo, J. and I.H. Russo, Biology of breast disease, Lab. Invest. 57:112 (1987).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Armstrong, B.K., J.B. Brown, and H.T. Clarke, Diet and reproductive hormones: a study of vegetarian and non-vegetarian postmenopausal women, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67:761 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goldin, B.R., H. Adlercreutz, S.L. Gorbach, J.H. Warram, J.T. Dwyer, L. Swenson, and M.N. Woods, Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarians and omnivorous women, N. Engl. J. Med. 307:1542 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Goldin, B.R., H. Adlercreutz, S.L. Gorbach, M.N. Woods, J.T. Dwyer, T. Conlon, E. Bohn, and S.N. Gershoff, The relationship between estrogen levels and diets of Caucasian American and Oriental immigrant women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 44:945 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Woods, M.N., S.L. Gorbach, C. Longcope, B. Goldin, J.T. Dwyer, and A. Morrill-LaBrode, Low-fat, high-fiber diet and serum estrone sulfate in premenopausal women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 49:1179(1989).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schultz, T.D. and J.E. Leklem, Nutrient intake and hormonal status of premenopausal vegetarian Seventh-Day Adventists and premenopausal nonvegetarians, Nutr. Cancer 4:247 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rose, D.P., M. Goldman, J.M. Connolly, and L.E. Strong, High-fiber diet reduces serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal women, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:520 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Farnsworth, N.R., A.S. Bingel, G.A. Cordell, F.A. Crane, and H.H.S. Fong, Potential value of plants as sources of new antifertility agents II, J. Pharm. Sci. 64:717 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bennetts, H.W., E.J. Underwood, and F.L. Shier, A specific problem of sheep on subterranean clover pastures in Western Australia, Aust. J. Agric. Res. 22:131 (1946).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Setchell, K.D.R. and H. Adlercreutz, Mammalian lignans and phytoestrogens: recent studies on their formation, metabolism and biological role in health and disease, in: Role of Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, L.R. Rowland, ed., Academic Press, New York (1988).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Setchell, K.D.R., A.M. Lawson, F.L. Mitchell, H. Adlercreutz, D.N. Kirk, and M. Axelson, Lignans in man and animal species, Nature 287:740 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Adlercreutz, H., T. Fotsis, C. Bannwart, K. Wahala, T. Makela, G. Brunow, and T. Hase, Determination of urinary lignans and phytoestrogen metabolites, potential antiestrogens and anticarcinogens, in urine of women on various habitual diets, J. Steroid Biochem. 25:791 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mousavi, Y. and H. Adlercreutz, Enterolactone and estradiol inhibit each other’s proliferative effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells in culture, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 41:615 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Peterson, G. and S. Barnes, Genistein and biochanin A inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer cells but not epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation, Prostate 22:335 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Adlercreutz, H., T. Fotsis, and J. Lampe, Quantitative determination of lignans and isoflavonoids in plasma of omnivorous and vegetarian women by isotope dilution gas chromatography — mass spectrometry, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 53:5 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mousavi, Y. and H. Adlercreutz, Genistein is an effective stimulator of sex hormone-binding globulin production in hepatocarcinoma human liver cancer cells and suppresses proliferation of these cells in culture, Steroids 58:301 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Adlercreutz, H., Western diet and Western diseases: some hormonal and biochemical mechanisms and associations, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 50(Suppl 201):3 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Adlercreutz, H., K. Hockerstedt, C. Bannwart, E. Hamalainen, T. Fotsis, and S. Bloigu, Association between dietary fiber, urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonic phytoestrogens and plasma non-protein bound sex hormones in relation to breast cancer, Prog. Cancer Res. Ther. 35:409 (1988).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Adlercreutz, H., H. Honjo, A. Higashi, T. Fotsis, E. Hamalainen, T. Hasegawa, and H. Okada, Urinary excretion of lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in Japanese men and women consuming a traditional Japanese diet, J. Clin. Nutr. 54:1093 (1991).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Goldin, B.R., L. Swenson, J.T. Dwyer, M. Sexton, and S.L. Gorbach, Effect of diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on human fecal bacterial enzymes, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 64:255 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Adlercreutz, H. and T. Luukkainen, Biochemical and clinical aspects of the enterohepatic circulation of oestrogen, Acta. Endocrinol. 124 (Suppl):101 (1967).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Goldin, B.R., M.N. Woods, D.L. Spiegelman, C. Longcope, A. Morrill-LaBrode, J.T. Dwyer, L.J. Gaultiere, E. Hertzmark, and S.L. Gorbach, The effect of dietary fat and fiber on serum estrogen concentrations in premenopausal women under controlled dietary conditions, Cancer (Suppl) (In Press).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Prentice, R., D. Thompson, C. Clifford, S. Gorbach, B. Goldin, and D. Byar, Dietary fat reduction and plasma estradiol concentration in healthy postmenopausal women, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82:129(1990).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry R. Goldin
    • 1
  • Sherwood L. Gorbach
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community HealthTufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations