Classical frequency standards

  • Chronos Group, French National Observatory, and National Centre of Scientific Research
Part of the Microwave Technology Series book series (MRFT, volume 7)


We measure a quantity by comparing it with another quantity of the same nature, chosen as a standard. In previous chapters we described the methods available for frequency comparison in different spectral ranges, and also the applications of such measurements. In several instances (Sections 1.4 and 1.5), we gave simple information about oscillators that seemed stable enough to be used as standards. We shall now collect together these pieces of information and then specify the nature of the problems that have to be solved before we can build a system supplying stable frequency. We will raise this oscillator to the status of a standard by describing its oscillation in terms of a law as a rigorous as possible, which will define the nature of the standard. All other oscillators will then be described by more approximate laws established by the methods described previously.


Resonant Frequency Phase Trajectory Negative Resistance Periodic Regime Quartz Resonator 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chronos Group, French National Observatory, and National Centre of Scientific Research
    • 1
  1. 1.France

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