The bipolar transistor has since its invention in 1948 undergone a continuous development, and its frequency limits have been pushed upward steadily. In particular the invention of planar silicon technology has increased the possibilities for reducing device dimensions. As we will see this is essential for reaching higher frequencies. In this technology the impurities are diffused via a mask into the surface of the silicon. The diffusion depth can be controlled by time and temperature and is of the order of 1 μm. By two subsequent diffusions of acceptors and donors a cross-section such as that in Fig. 6.1(a) is obtained. The doping profiles have the form of Fig. 6.1(b). Since bipolar transistors are treated extensively in many textbooks we will here only discuss those properties that are essential for microware applications.
KeywordsPhosphorus Microwave Recombination Arsenic GaAs
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