The Major Glycosylation Pathways of Mammalian Membranes A Summary

  • Ajit Varki
  • Hudson H. Freeze
Part of the Subcellular Biochemistry book series (SCBI, volume 22)


Many types of cellular membranes have sugar chains (Oligosaccharides or gly-cans) attached to a variety of their constituent macromolecules. Such glycosy-lated macromolecules are called glycoconjugates. This chapter will broadly scan the subject of structure and biosynthesis of Oligosaccharides on glycoconjugates, primarily in higher animal cells. The classification of different types of Oligosaccharides will be based on the type of linkage that joins them to the nonsugar component (aglycone), rather than on the types of sugars (monosaccharides) found in the chains. As shown in Table I, this classification is slightly different from the more conventional categories and nomenclature used for glycoconjugates in the past. This change is made because it is now clear that the aglycone usually determines the initiation step in creating a glycoconjugate and can have an influence upon the further buildup of a more complex glycan. Furthermore, the traditional boundaries between the different types of glycoconjugates as previously described have become blurred.


Sialic Acid Golgi Apparatus Sugar Chain Oligosaccharide Chain GlcNAc Residue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bhavanandan, V. P., and Davidson, E. A., 1992, Proteoglycans: Structure, synthesis, function, in Glycoconjugates: Composition, Structure and Function (H. J. Allen and E. C. Kisailus, eds.), pp. 167–202, M. Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  2. Carraway, K. L., and Hull, S. R., 1991, Cell surface mucin-type glycoproteins and mucin-like domains, Glycobiology 1:131–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cumming, D. A., 1991, Glycosylation of recombinant protein therapeutics: Control and functional implications, Glycobiology 1:115–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cummings, R. D., Merkle, R. K., and Stults, N. L., 1989, Separation and analysis of glycoprotein Oligosaccharides, Methods Cell Biol. 32:141–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cummings, R. D., 1992, Synthesis of asparagine-linked Oligosaccharides: Pathways, genetics, and metabolic regulation, in Glycoconjugates: Composition, Structure and Function (H. J. Allen and E. C. Kisailus, eds), pp. 333-360, M. Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  6. Doering, T. L., Masterson, W. J., Hart, G. W., and Englund, P.T., 1990, Biosynthesis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol membrane anchors, J. Biol. Chem. 265:611–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Elbein, A. D., 1991, Glycosidase inhibitors: Inhibitors of N-linked Oligosaccharide processing, FASEB J. 5:3055–3063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Farquhar, M. G., 1991, Protein traffic through the Golgi complex, in lntracellular Trafficking of Proteins (C. J. Steer and J. Hanover, eds.), pp. 431-471, Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Ferguson, M. A. J., 1992, Lipid anchors on membrane proteins, Curr. Opinion Struct. Biol. 1:522–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fukuda, M., 1992, Cell surface carbohydrates in hematopoietic cell differentiation and malignancy, in Cell Surface Carbohydrates and Cell Development (M. Fukuda, ed.), pp. 127-159, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  11. Hakomori, S., 1986, Tumor associated glycolipid antigens, their metabolism and organization, Chem. Phys. Lipids 42:209–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hakomori, S., 1990, Bifunctional role of glycosphingolipids: Modulators for transmembrane signaling and mediators for cellular interactions, J. Biol. Chem. 265:18713–18716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hart, G. W., Haltiwanger, R. S., Holt, G. D., and Kelly, W. G., 1989, Glycosylation in the nucleus and cytoplasm, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58:841–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hirschberg, C. B., and Snider, M. D., 1987, Topography of glycosylation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 56:63–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kisailus, E. C., and Allen, H. J., 1992, Nomenclature of monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides, and glycoconjugates, in Glycoconjugates: Composition, Structure and Function (H. J. Allen and E. C. Kisailus, eds.), pp. 13-32, M. Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  16. Kjellén, L., and Lindahl, U., 1991, Proteoglycans: Structures and interactions, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 60:443–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kobata, A., and Takasaki, S., 1992, Structure and biosynthesis of cell surface carbohydrates, in Cell Surface Carbohydrates and Cell Development (M. Fukuda, ed.), pp. 1-24, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  18. Kornfeld, R., and Kornfeld, S., 1985, Assembly of asparagine-linked Oligosaccharides, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 54:631–664.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kornfeld, S., 1990, Lysosomal enzyme targeting, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 18:367–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kundu, S. K., 1992, Glycolipids: Structure, synthesis, functions, in Glycoconjugates: Composition, Structure and Function (H. J. Allen and E. C. Kisailus, eds.), pp. 203-262, M. Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  21. Mellman, I., and Simons, K., 1992, The Golgi complex: In vitro veritas? Cell 68:829-840.Google Scholar
  22. Paulson, J. C., and Colley, K. J., 1989, Glycosyltransferases: Structure, localization, and control of cell type-specific glycosylation, J. Biol. Chem. 264:17615–17618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Rademacher, T. W., Parekh, R. B., and Dwek, R. A., 1988, Glycobiology, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 57:785–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rothman, J. E., and Orci, L., 1992, Molecular dissection of the secretory pathway, Nature 355:409–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ruoslahti, E., and Yamaguchi, Y., 1991, Proteoglycans as modulators of growth factor activities, Cell 64:867–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schachter, H., 1991, The “yellow brick road” to branched complex N-glycans, Glycobiology 1:453–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schachter, H., and Brockhausen, I., 1992, The biosynthesis of serine (threonine) N-acetylga-lactosamine-linked carbohydrate moieties, in Glycoconjugates: Composition, Structure and Function (H. J. Allen and E. C. Kisailus, eds.), pp. 263-332, M. Dekker, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  28. Schauer, R., 1991, Biosynthesis and function of N-and O-substituted sialic acids, Glycobiology 1:449–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shayman, J. A., and Radin, N. S., 1991, Structure and function of renal glycosphingolipids, Am. J. Physiol. Renal, Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 260:F291-F302.Google Scholar
  30. Stanley, P., 1992, Glycosylation engineering, Glycobiology 2:99–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stults, C. L. M., Sweeley, C. C., and Macher, B. A., 1989, Glycosphingolipids: Structure, biological source, and properties, Methods Enzymol. 179:167–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Troy, F. A., II, 1992, Polysialylation: From bacteria to brains, Glycobiology 2:5–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Van Echten, G., and Sandhoff, K., 1993, Ganglioside metabolism: Enzymology. topology, and regulation, J. Biol. Chem. 268:5341–5344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Varki, A., 1991, Radioactive tracer techniques in the sequencing of glycoprotein Oligosaccharides. FASEB J. 5:226–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Varki, A., 1992a, Diversity in the sialic acids, Glycobiology 2:25–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Varki, A., 1992b, Role of Oligosaccharides in the intracellular and intercellular trafficking of mammalian glycoproteins, in Cell Surface Carbohydrates and Cell Development (M. Fukuda. ed.), pp. 25–69, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.Google Scholar
  37. Varki, A., 1993, Biological roles of Oligosaccharides: All of the theories are correct, Glycobiology 3:97–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Winchester, B., and Fleet, G. W. J., Amino-sugar glycosidase inhibitors: Versatile tools for gly-cobiologists, Glycobiology 2:199-210.Google Scholar
  39. Yanagishita, M., and Hascall, V. C., 1992, Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, J. Biol. Chem. 267:9451–9454.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajit Varki
    • 1
  • Hudson H. Freeze
    • 2
  1. 1.Cancer CenterUniversity of California at San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.La Jolla Cancer Research FoundationLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations