The Sodium Gradient, Potassium Channels, and Regulation of Calcium in Pulmonary and Mesenteric Arterial Smooth Muscles: Effects of Hypoxia

  • Xiao-Jian Yuan
  • Carmen G. Salvaterra
  • Mary L. Tod
  • Magdalena Juhaszova
  • William F. Goldman
  • Lewis J. Rubin
  • Mordecai P. Blaustein
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 251)


Contraction in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) is generally initiated by the membrane excitation that triggers an increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) which then activates the contractile apparatus (19, 26). In general, [Ca2+]i can be increased by i) Ca2+ influx, through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by depolarization of the plasma membrane, and/or through receptor-operated Ca2+ channels by vasoconstrictive mediators; ii) Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), mitochondrial, and other intracellular Ca2+ stores; iii) decreased Ca2+ extrusion (via Na-Ca exchange, Ca2+-ATPase) and sequestration (via mitochondria, SR, Ca2+-binding proteins); and iv) increased Ca2+ entry via Na-Ca exchange. Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is controlled mainly by the membrane potential (Em) (35) that is dominated by K+ channel permeability and the transmembrane K+ distribution (14). The smooth muscle cell membrane possesses a high membrane input resistance (13, 35, 56); thus, a small decrease in K+ conductance should cause a relatively large depolarization, which should, in turn, open voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and thereby increase [Ca2+]i.


KATP Channel Physiological Salt Solution Single Smooth Muscle Cell Modify Krebs Solution Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao-Jian Yuan
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Carmen G. Salvaterra
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Mary L. Tod
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Magdalena Juhaszova
    • 1
    • 4
  • William F. Goldman
    • 1
    • 4
  • Lewis J. Rubin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Mordecai P. Blaustein
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care MedicineUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Hypertension CenterUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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