Advertisement

Mites pp 218-251 | Cite as

Evolution and Life-History Patterns of Mites Associated with Bees

  • George C. Eickwort

Abstract

Bees (superfamily Apoidea, order Hymenoptera) represent one of the major success stories in evolution. With about 20,000 species in 11 families (Michener 1979), they are twice as diverse as birds. All species, except cleptoparasites (cuckoos), construct nests and provision cells with pollen and concentrated nectar (honey), the sole food of both larvae and adults. This niche is otherwise occupied only by a few vespid wasps.

Keywords

Phoretic Mite Mite Genus Metasomal Tergum Mite Associate Phoretic Host 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrahamovich, A. H. and A. D. B. de Alzuet. 1989. Relaciones foreticas entre acaros (Acaridae y Chaetodactylidae) e himenopteros (Anthophoridae, Xylocopinae). Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argent. 47:115–122.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, E. W. and M. Delfinado-Baker. 1983. New mites (Sennertia: Chaetodactylidae) phoretic on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Guatemala. Int. J. Acarol. 9:117–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, E. W., D. W. Roubik and M. Delfinado-Baker. 1987. The developmental stages and dimorphic males of Chaetodactylus panamensis, n. sp. (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) associated with solitary bee (Apoidea: Anthophoridae). Int. J. Acarol. 13:65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chmielewski, W. 1969. Obserwacje nad biologia nowego dla akarofauny polskiej gatunku Kuzinia laevis (Dujardin, 1849) (Acarina, Acaridae). Pol. Pismo Entomol. 39:603–617.Google Scholar
  5. Chmielewski, W. 1971. The mites (Acarina) found on bumble-bees (Bombus Latr.) and in their nests. Ekol. Pol. 19:57–71.Google Scholar
  6. Costa, M. 1966. The biology and development of Hypoaspis (Pneumolaelaps) hyatti (Acari: Mesostigmata). J. Zool. 148:191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cowan, D. P. 1984. Life history and male dimorphism in the mite Kennethiella trisetosa (Acarina: Winterschmidtiidae), and its symbiotic relationship with the wasp Ancistrocerus antilope (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 77:725–732.Google Scholar
  8. Cross, E. A. and G. E. Bohart. 1969. Phoretic behavior of four species of alkali bee mites as influenced by season and host sex. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 42:195–219.Google Scholar
  9. Cross, E. A. and G. E. Bohart. 1979. Some observations of the habits and distribution of Trochometridium Cross, 1965 (Acarina: Pyemotidae). Acarologia 20:286–293.Google Scholar
  10. Cross, E. A. and G. E. Bohart. 1991. Notes on the life history of Sancassania boharti (Acari: Acaridae) and its relationship to the alkali bee Nomia melanderi (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 63:603–610.Google Scholar
  11. Cross, E. A. and J. C. Moser. 1975. A new, dimorphic species of Pyemotes and a key to previously-described forms (Acarina: Tarsonemoidea). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 68:723–732.Google Scholar
  12. Delfinado, M. D. and E. W. Baker. 1976. New species of Scutacaridae (Acarina) associated with insects. Acarologia 18:264–301.Google Scholar
  13. Delfinado-Baker, M., E. W. Baker and A. C. G. Phoon. 1989. Mites (Acari) associated with bees (Apidae) in Asia, with description of a new species. Am. Bee J. 129:609–610, and 612–613.Google Scholar
  14. Delfinado-Baker, M., E. W. Baker and D. W. Roubik. 1983. A new genus and species of Hypoaspidinae (Acari: Laelapidae) from nests of stingless bees. Int. J. Acarol. 9:195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eickwort, G. C. 1979. Mites associated with sweat bees (Halictidae). In: Recent Advances in Acarology, Vol. 1 (J. G. Rodriguez ed.). Academic Press, NY. Pp. 575–581.Google Scholar
  16. Eickwort, G. C. 1988. The origins of mites associated with honey bees. In: Africanized Honey Bees and Bee Mites. (G. R. Needham, R. E. Page, Jr, M. Delfinado-Baker and C. Bowman eds.). Ellis-Horwood, Ltd., Chichester, England. Pp. 327–338.Google Scholar
  17. Eickwort, G. C. 1990. Associations of mites with social insects. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 35:469–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Elsen, P. 1973. Pneumolaelaps machadoi spec, no v. (Acarina: Mesostigmata) et autres acariens mésostigmatiques phorétiques d’Hyménoptères Apidae (Insecta) d’Angola. Publ. Cult. Cia. Diamantes Angola 87:179–186.Google Scholar
  19. Fain, A. 1966. Notes sur la biologie des Acariens du genre Chaetodactylus et en particulier de C. osmiae, parasite des abeilles solitaires Osmia ruf a et O. cornuta en Belgique (Sarcoptiformes: Chaetodactylidae). Bull. Ann. Soc. R. Belge Entomol. 102:249–261.Google Scholar
  20. Fain, A. 1981a. A revision of the phoretic deutonymphs (hypopi) of the genus Sennertia Oudemans, 1905 (Acari, Astigmata, Chaetodactylidae). Syst. Parasitol. 3:145–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fain, A. 1981b. Notes on the hypopi of the genus Chaetodactylus Rondani, 1866 (Acari, Chaetodactylidae). Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg. Entomol. 53:1–9.Google Scholar
  22. Fain, A. 1984a. A new genus of mite (Acari: Acaridae) phoretic on bees (Ctenocolletes) in Australia. Rec. W. Aust. Mus. 11:77–86.Google Scholar
  23. Fain, A. 1984b. Notes sur les hypopes du genre Horstia Oudemans, 1905 (Acari, Acaridae), phorétiques sur les Hyménoptères. Acarologia 25:259–270.Google Scholar
  24. Fain, A. and W. Chmielewski. 1987. Horstia (Horstia) longa spec. nov. (Acari, Acaridae) from house-dust in Poland. Pol. Pismo Entomol. 57:367–372.Google Scholar
  25. Fain, A. and T. F. Houston. 1986. Life cycle stages of mites of the genus Ctenocolletacarus Fain (Acari: Acaridae) associated with Ctenocolletes bees in Australia. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. 13:67–77.Google Scholar
  26. Fain, A., F. S. Lukoschus and M. Nadchatram. 1980. Two new species of Cheletophyes Oudemans, 1914 (Prostigmata: Cheyletidae) from the nest of a carpenter bee in Malaysia. Int. J. Acarol. 6:309–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fain, A. and G. Rack. 1987. Notes on the mites living in the flowers of Espletia spp. (Asteraceae) in Colombia. I. Carpoglyphus sturmi sp. n. (Acari, Carpoglyphidae). Entomol. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamb. 9:9–19.Google Scholar
  28. Fain, A. and A. E. Rosa. 1983. Acari domum meliponinarum brasiliensium habitantes. IV. New astigmatic mites from the nest of the bee Partamona sp. (Meliponidae). Bull. Inst. R. Sci. Nat. Belg. 55:1–13.Google Scholar
  29. Flechtmann, C. H. W. and C. A. de Camargo. 1979. Acari associated with stingless bees (Meliponidae, Hymenoptera) from Brazil. In: Proc. 4th Int. Congr. Acarol., (E. Piffl ed.), Saalfelden, 1974. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Pp. 315–319.Google Scholar
  30. Gibbins, B. L. and R. F. van Toor. 1990. Investigation of the parasitic status of Melittiphis alvearius (Berlese) on honeybees, Apis mellifera L., by immunoassay. J. Apic. Res. 29:46–52.Google Scholar
  31. Haeseler, V. 1982. Solitäre Wespen und Bienen als Transporteure der Wandernymphen von Uropodiden. Mikrokosmos 8:227–229.Google Scholar
  32. Hamilton, W. D. 1967. Extraordinary sex ratios. Science 156:477–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Houston, T. F. 1987. The symbiosis of acarid mites, genus Ctenocolletacarus (Acarina: Acariformes), and stenotritid bees, genus Ctenocolletes (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Aust. J. Zool. 35:459–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hunter, P. E. and R. W. Husband. 1973. Pneumolaelaps (Acarina: Laelapidae) mites from North America and Greenland. Fla. Entomol. 56:77–91.Google Scholar
  35. Husband, R.W. and R.N. Sinha. 1970. A revision of the genus Locustacarus with a key to genera of the family Podapolipidae (Acarina). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63:1152–1162.Google Scholar
  36. Klompen, J. S. H., F. S. Lukoschus and B. M. OConnor. 1987. Ontogeny, life history and sex ratio evolution in Ensliniella kostylevi (Acari: Winterschmidtiidae). J. Zool. 213:591–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Krantz, G. W. 1962. A review of the genera of the family Macrochelidae Vitzthum 1930 (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Acarologia 4:143–173.Google Scholar
  38. Krombein, K. V. 1962a. Biological notes on acarid mites associated with solitary wood-nesting wasps and bees. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 64:11–19.Google Scholar
  39. Krombein, K. V. 1962b. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland XVI. Biological notes on Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker, a parasitic mite of the megachilid bee, Osmia (Osmia) lignaria Say (Acarina: Chaetodactylidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 75:237–249.Google Scholar
  40. LeVeque, N. 1930. Symbiotic mites used to separate species of a genus of bees. Science 71:607–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lindquist, E. E. 1985. Discovery of sporothecae in adult female Trochometridium Cross, with notes on analogous structures in Siteroptes Amerling (Acari: Heterostigmata). Exp. Appl. Acarol. 1:73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): A morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 136:1–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lombert, H. A. P. M., B. M. OConnor, F. S. Lukoschus and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1987. Ontogeny, systematics and ecology of Sennertia (Amsennertia) americana Delfinado and Baker, 1976 (Acari: Chaetodactylidae) from the nest of the carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Int. J. Acarol. 13:113–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Madel, G. 1975. Vergesellschaftung der Milbenart Dinogamasus villosior mit der ostafrikanischen Holzbiene Xylocopa flavorufa (Acarina: Laelaptidae/Hymenoptera: Xylocopi-dae). Entomol. Ger. 1:144–150.Google Scholar
  45. Maeta, Y. 1978. Comparative studies on the biology of the bees of the genus Osmia of Japan, with special reference to their managements for pollinations of crops (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Bull. Tohoku Nat. Agric. Exp. Stn. (Morioka) 57:1–221.Google Scholar
  46. Magowski, W. 1986. Two new species of Tarsonemus (Acari: Prostigmata) associated with Xylocopa carpenter bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Entomol. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Hamb. 8:289–306.Google Scholar
  47. Mahunka, S. 1974. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der an Hymenopteren lebenden Milben (Acari) II. Folia Entomol. Hung. 27:99–108.Google Scholar
  48. Michener, C.D. 1979. Biogeography of the bees. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 66:277–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. OConnor, B. M. 1982. Evolutionary ecology of astigmatid mites. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 27:385–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. OConnor, B. M. 1988. Coevolution in astigmatid mite-bee associations. In: Africanized Honey Bees and Bee Mites. (G. R. Needham, R. E. Page, Jr, M. Delfinado-Baker and C. Bowman eds.). Ellis-Horwood, Ltd. Chichester, England. Pp. 339–346.Google Scholar
  51. OConnor, B. M. 1992a. Ontogeny and systematics of the genus Cerophagus, mites associated with bumblebees (Acari: Gaudiellidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 25:173–189.Google Scholar
  52. OConnor, B. M. 1992b. Generic relationships in the Chaetodactylidae (Acari: Astigmata) with description of a new genus (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  53. OConnor, B. M. 1993. The mite community associated with Xylocopa latipes (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae: Xylocopinae) with description of a new type of acarinarium. Int. J. Acarol., Vol. 19 (in press).Google Scholar
  54. OConnor, B. M. and G. C. Eickwort. 1988. Morphology, ontogeny, biology and systematics of the genus Vidia (Acari: Winterschmidtiidae). Acarologia 29:147–174.Google Scholar
  55. Putatunda, B. N. and R. P. Kapil. 1988. Seven new species of Cheletophyes (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletidae) associated with carpenter bees in India. In: Progress in Acarology, Volume 1 (G. P. Channabasavanna and CA. Viraktamath eds.). Oxford and IBH Publ. Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Pp. 317–328.Google Scholar
  56. Rack, G. and G. C. Eickwort. 1980. Biology and description of a new pygmephorid mite (Acarina: Tarsonemida) associated with the soil-nesting bee Agapostemon nasutus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Acarologia 21:267–278.Google Scholar
  57. Richards, K. W. and L. A. Richards. 1977. A new species of Macrocheles (Acarina: Macrochelidae) found in bumble bee nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Can. Entomol. 109:711–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Richards, L. A. and K. W. Richards. 1976. Parasitid mites associated with bumblebees in Alberta, Canada (Acarina: Parasitidae; Hymenoptera: Apidae). II. Biology. Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 51:1–18.Google Scholar
  59. Roubik, D. W. 1987. Notes on the biology of anthophorid bee Tetrapedia and the mite Chaetodactylus panamensis Baker, Roubik and Delfinado-Baker (Acari: Chaetodactylidae). Int. J. Acarol. 13:75–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Royce, L. A. and G. W. Krantz. 1989. Observations on pollen processing by Pneumolaelaps longanalis (Acari: Laelapidae), a mite associate of bumblebees. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 7:161–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schousboe, C. 1986. On the biology of Scutacarus acarorum Goeze (Acarina: Trombidi-formes). Acarologia 27:151–158.Google Scholar
  62. Schousboe, C. 1987. Deutonymphs of Parasitellus phoretic on Danish bumblebees (Parasitidae, Mesostigmata; Apidae, Hymenoptera). Acarologia 28:37–41.Google Scholar
  63. Skaife, S. H. 1952. The yellow-banded carpenter bee, Mesotrichia caffra Linn, and its symbiotic mite, Dinogamasus braunsi Vitzthum. J. Entomol. Soc. South. Afr. 15:63–76.Google Scholar
  64. Smiley, R. L. and J. O. Whitaker, Jr. 1981. Studies on the idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy of the Cheyletidae (Acari) with descriptions of a new genus and four new species. Int. J. Acarol. 7:109–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Southcott, R. V. 1989. A larval mite (Acarina: Erythraeidae) parasitizing the European honey bee in Guatemala. Acarologia 30:123–129.Google Scholar
  66. Vitzthum, H. 1930. Acarologische Beobachtungen (14. Reihe). Zool. Jahrb. Syst. Oekol. Geogr. Tiere 59:281–350.Google Scholar
  67. Watmough, R. H. 1974. Biology and behaviour of carpenter bees in southern Africa. J. Entomol. Soc. South. Afr. 37:261–281.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • George C. Eickwort

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations