Introduction

  • Edward J. CoyneSr.

Abstract

Works published by the World Bank (1989)2, William Lewis (1991)3, Lester Thurow (1992)4, and others point to the same conclusion — the gap in living standards between developed countries and developing countries (excluding Southeast Asia) is widening and likely to continue doing so for the next century. Over the next 50 years, the world’s population is likely to double to approximately 10 billion people. At the end of that period, the prospects are that 10% of the world’s population will have a standard of living that satisfies their reasonable material needs and desires. The remaining 90% – 9 billion people — may be living somewhat better in real terms than they are today but most of them will be living near the economic margin with no real hope of participating in the life of the industrial world — except by migrating. (Lewis, 1991).

Keywords

Europe Transportation Income Expense Arena 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Elizabeth, Regina II. 1983. “Christmas message to the Commonwealth”. The London Times, 27 December, 1983, p. 1.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    The World Bank. 1989. “The World Bank, the DFC and MIGA”. The World Bank Annual Report. 1989. Wash. D.C.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lewis, W. 1991. “Free market and the prosperity gap”. The McKinsey Quarterly, No. 4, pp. 116–132.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thurow, L. 1992. Head to head. The coming economic battle among Japan, Europe, and America. N.Y.: William Morrow & Co. Inc.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1989). “International direct investment and the new economic environment: Tokyo Round Table. Paris France: OECD, p.3.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Comell, R (1989). International direct investment and the new economic environment: Tokyo Round Table. Paris: OECD, p.10–11.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wallace, C. 1990. Foreign direct investment in the 1990s, a new climate in the 3rd world. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, p. 177.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Streeten, P. 1992. “Interdependence and integration of the world economy: the role of states and firms”. Transnational Corporations, Vol 1, No 3, (December), p. 132.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    The World Bank (1993). The World Bank Annual Report 1993. Wash. D.C: p.36.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weekly, J. and Aggarwal, R 1989. International business operating in the global economy. Orlando, FL.: Dryden Press, p.316Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gold, D. 1993. “World investment report 1993: Transnational corporations and integrated international production. An executive summary”. Transnational Corporations, Vol.2, No.2, Aug., 1993. p.99.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1986. The OECD guidelines for multinational enterprises.. Paris: OEDC: pp. 11–16.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buckley, P. 1989. The multinational enterprise. London: MacMillan Press, p. 13.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aharoni, Y. 1966. The foreign investment decision process. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reuber, G., Crookell, H., Emerson, M., and Gallais-Hamono, G. 1973. Private foreign investment in development. Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 131.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Usher, D. 1977. “The economics of tax incentives to encourage investment in developing countries”. Journal of Development Economics. June, pp. 119–61.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Root, F.R and Ahmed, A.A. 1978. “The influence of policy instruments on manufacturing foreign direct investment in developing countries”. Journal of International Business Studies. Winter 1987, pp. 81–94.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shah, S.M.S. and Toye, J.F.T. 1978. “Fiscal incentives for firms in some developing countries: Survey and critique”, in Taxation and Economic Development. J.F.T. Toye,(Ed.). London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lim, D. 1983. “Fiscal incentives and direct foreign investment in less developed countries”. Journal of Development Studies. Jan. pp. 207–12.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Group of Thirty. 1984. Foreign direct investment 1973–87. N.Y.: Group of Thirty, p. 31.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guisinger, S. 1985. Investment incentives and performance requirements: patterns of international trade, production and investment. Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, p.48.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Evans, T., and Doupnik, T. 1986. “Foreign exchange risk management under standartd 53.83”. Stamford, CT.: Financial Accounting Standards Board..Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cable, V. and Persaud, B. 1987. “New trends and policy problems in foreign investment: The experience of Commonwealth developing countries”. Developing With Foreign Investment. The Commonwealth Secretariat. Kent: Croom Helm Ltd., p.8Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wells, L. 1986. “Investment incentives: An unnecessary debate”. CTC Reporter. Autumn, 1986, pp. 58–60..Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Austin, J. 1990. Managing in Developing Countries. N.Y.: Free Press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Contractor, F. 199). “Government policies towards foreign investment. An empirical investigation of the link between national policies and FDI flows”. A paper presented to Annual Conference, Academy of International Business, Miami: p. 21.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Contractor, F. 1991. “Government policies and foreign direct investment”. UNCTC Studies. Series, No. 17, N.Y.: United Nations, p.23.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Cable, V. and Persaud, B. 1987. “New trends and policy problems in foreign investment: The experience of Commonwealth developing countries”. Developing With Foreign Investment. The Commonwealth Secretariat. Kent: Croom Helm Ltd., p. 11.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Rolfe, R.; Ricks, D.; Pointer, M.; and McCarthy, M. 1993. “Determinants of FDI preferences of MNEs”. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol 24, No. 2, Second Qt., 1993.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    Woodward, D. and Rolfe, R. 1993. “The location of export oriented foreign direct investment in the Caribbean basin”. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol.24, No.1, p. 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    Kumar, N. 1994. “Determinants of export orientation on foreign production by U.S. multionationals: an inter-country analysis”. Journal Of International Business Studies. Vol.25, No.1, 1st Qt 1994. p. 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    Beamish, P.; Killing, J.; Lecraw, D.; Crookell, H. 1991. International management, Text and cases. Homewood, IL.: Irwin, p. 95.Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    Miller, R. 1993. “Determinants of U.S. manufacturing abroad”. Finance and Development. March, 1993. p. 118.Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    Brewer, T.; David, K.; Lim, L. 1993. Investing in developing countries. A guide for executives. Lexington, MA.: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath & Company, p. 105.Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    Brewer, T.; David, K.; Lim, L. 1987. Investing in developing countries. A guide for executives. Lexington, MA.: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath & Company, p. 105..Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    Streeten, P. 1992. “Interdependence and integration of the world economy: the role of states and firms”. Transnational Corporations, Vol 1, No 3, (December), p. 132.Google Scholar
  37. 36.
    Ostry, S. 1992. “The domestic domain: The new international policy arena”. Transnational Corporations, Vol.1, No. 1, p. 7.Google Scholar
  38. 37.
    Streeten, P. 1992. “Interdependence and integration of the world economy: the role of states and firms”. Transnational Corporations, Vol 1, No 3, (December), p. 135.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward J. CoyneSr.
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Business & EntrepreneurshipNova Southeastern UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations