As the demand for high quality integrated circuits (IC’s) continuously increases, selecting optimal values of circuit elements and parameters — in the face of statistical and environmental variations — becomes a pervasive engineering design problem. Due to the disturbances and variations present in the IC manufacturing processes, the actual set of mass produced chips will be different than the nominal design. Moreover, the environmental variations (of such parameters as temperature, supply voltages, etc.) will also make the circuit performances vary during the circuit life span.
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