Food poisoning and other food-borne hazards

  • S. J. Forsythe
  • P. R. Hayes

Abstract

The term ‘food poisoning’ is commonly used to cover a wide variety of illnesses or clinical conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The very large majority of such illnesses found in developed countries result from the consumption of contaminated food or drink, and because they are caused by infection with or the presence of bacteria, these organisms will receive the greatest attention here. However, it is necessary to consider, albeit more briefly, other forms of food poisoning and food-borne hazards since these may sometimes be of concern and pose serious health hazards in other parts of the world.

Keywords

Arsenic Sewage Histamine Aspergillus Bivalve 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Christensen, H., Nordentoft, S. and Olsen, J.E. (1997). 23Sribosomal DNAnucleotidesequences ofSalmonellaenterica andS. bongori in order to establish phylogenetical relations. Proceedingsof the InternationalSymposium on Salmonella and Salmonellosis, May, INRA, pp. 17–22.Google Scholar
  2. Fenlon, D.R. (1981). Seagulls (Larus spp.) asvectors of salmonellae: an investigation into the range of serotypes andnumbers of salmonellae in gull faeces. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 86, 195–202.Google Scholar
  3. Franco, D.A. (1988). Campylobacter species:considerations for controlling a foodborne pathogen. Journal of FoodProtection 51,145–53.Google Scholar
  4. Genigeorgis, C.A. (1989). Present state of knowledgeon staphylococcal intoxication. InternationalJournal of FoodMicrobiology 9,327–60.Google Scholar
  5. Gross, R.J. and Rowe, B. (1985). Escherichia colidiarrhoea. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 95, 531–50.Google Scholar
  6. Healy, G.R. and Juranek, G. (1979). Parasiticinfections. In: Food-Borne Infections and Intoxication 2nd Edn. Eds H.Riemann and F.L. Bryan, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Mackey, B.M. and Bratchell, N. (1989). A review. Theheat resistance of Listeriamonocytogenes.Letters inApplied Microbiology 9,89–94.Google Scholar
  8. McLauchlin, J. (s1987). A review. Listeriamonocytogenes recent advancesin the taxonomy andepidemiologyof listeriosis in humans. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 63, 1–11.Google Scholar
  9. Moreau, C. (1979). Moulds, Toxins and Food. Chichester,John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  10. Moss, M.O. (1987). Microbial food poisoning. In: Essays in Agricultural andFood Micorbiology.EdsJ.R. Norris and G.L. Pettipher, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  11. Park, R.W.A., Griffiths, P.L. and Moreno, G.S.(1991). Sources and survival of campylobacters: relevance to enteritis and thefood industry. In: Pathogens in the Environment. Ed. B. Austin. Journal ofApplied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement No. 20, 97S–106S.Google Scholar
  12. Pusztai, A. (1986). The role in food poisoning oftoxins and allergens from higher plants. In: Developments in Food Microbiology - 2. Ed. R.K.Robinson, London, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Roberts, D. (1982). Factors contributing tooutbreaks of food poisoning in England and Wales 1970-1979. Journal of Hygiene,Cambridge 89, 491–8.Google Scholar
  14. Samarajeewa, U., Sen, A.C., Cohen, M.D and Wei, C.I.(1990). Detoxification of aflatoxins in foods and feeds by physical and chemicalmethods. Journal of Food Protection 53, 489–501.Google Scholar
  15. Seiander, R.K.I., Li. J. and Nelson, K.(1996). Evolutionary genetics of Salmonella enterica. In: Escherichia coli and Salmonella.Cellular and Molecular Biology 2nd ed, vol. 2, Ed. F.C. Neidhardt,Washington DC, ASM Press.Google Scholar
  16. Scott, H.G. (1969). Poisonous plants and animals.In: Food-Borne Infections and Intoxications. Ed. H. Riemann, NewYork, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Smith, J.L. (1987). Shigella as a foodbornepathogen. Journal of Food Protection 50, 788–801.Google Scholar

References

  1. Abrahamsson, K., De Silva, N.N. and Molin, N. (1965). Toxinproduction by Clostridium botulinum type E, in vacuum-packed, irradiatedfresh fish in relation to changes of the associated microflora. Canadian Journalof Microbiology 11,523–9.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J.K. (1988). Contamination of freshlyslaughtered pig carcasses with human pathogenic Yersiniaenterocolitica. International Journal of Food Microbiology 7, 193–202.Google Scholar
  3. Anon. (1997). The Pennington Group. Report on thecircumstances leading to the 1996 outbreak of infection with E. coli O157:H7in central Scotland, the implications for food safety and the lessons to belearned. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  4. Ayres, P.A. and Barrow, G.I. (1978). Thedistribution of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in British coastal waters: report ofa collaborative study 1975-6. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 80, 281–94.Google Scholar
  5. Baird-Parker, A.C. (1971). Factors affecting theproduction of bacterial food poisoning toxins. Journal ofApplied Bacteriology 34,181–97.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, A.P. et al. (1979). Human botulismcaused by Clostridium botulinum type E: the Birmingham outbreak. QuarterlyJournal of Medicine 48 (New Series), 473–91.Google Scholar
  7. Bannister, B.A. (1987). Listeriamonocytogenes meningitisassociated with eating soft cheese. Journal of Infection 15, 165–8.Google Scholar
  8. Barnes, J.M. (1970). Aflatoxin as a health hazard. Journalof Applied Bacteriology 33, 285–98.Google Scholar
  9. Barrell, R.A.E. (1982). Isolations of salmonellas from human, food andenvironmental sources in the Manchester area: 1976-1980. Journal of Hygiene,Cambridge 88, 403–11.Google Scholar
  10. Barrell, R.A.E. (1987). Isolations of salmonellasfrom humans and foods in the Manchester area: 1981-1985. Epidemiology andInfection 98, 277–84.Google Scholar
  11. Barrett, N.J. (1986). Communicable diseaseassociated with milk and dairy products in England and Wales: 1983-1984.Journal of Infection 12, 265–72.Google Scholar
  12. Beckers, J.J. (1988). Incidence of foodbornediseases in the Netherlands: annual summary 1982 and an overview from1979 to 1982. Journal of Food Protection 51, 327–34.Google Scholar
  13. Bergdoll, M.S. (1970). Enterotoxins. In: MicrobialToxins III. Bacterial Protein Toxins. Eds T.C. Montie, S. Kadisand S.J. Ajl, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  14. Beumer, R.R., Cruysen, J.J.M. and Birtantie, I.R.K.(1988). The occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni in raw cows’milk. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 65, 93–6.Google Scholar
  15. Blacklow, N.R. and Cukor, G.C. (1981). Viralgastroenteritis. New England. Journal of Medicine 304, 397–406.Google Scholar
  16. Blanco, J.L. etal. (1988). Presenceof aflatoxin M1 in commercial ultra-high-temperature treated milk. Appliedand Environmental Microbiology 54, 1622–3.Google Scholar
  17. Bolton, F.J., Wareing, D.R.A., Skirrow, M.B.,Hutchinson, D.N. (1992). Identification and biotyping ofcampylobacters. In: Identification Methods in Applied and EnvironmentalMicrobiology.Societyfor Applied Bacteriology Technical Series 29, London, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  18. Brackett, R.E. and Marth, E.H. (1982). Fate ofaflatoxin M1 in cheddar cheese and in process cheese spread. Journalof Food Protection 45, 549–52.Google Scholar
  19. Bradshaw, J.G. et al. (1987). Thermalresisting of Listeria monocytogenesindairy products. Journalof Food Protection 50, 543–4.Google Scholar
  20. Brouwer, R., Mertens, M.J.A., Siem, T.H. andKatchaki, J. (1979). An explosive outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis insoldiers. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 45, 517–19.Google Scholar
  21. Brown, D.F., Spaulding, P.L. and Twedt, R.M. (1977).Enteropathogenicity of Vibrio para-haemolyticus in the ligatedrabbit ileum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 33, 10–14.Google Scholar
  22. Bryan, F.L. (1976). Staphylococcus aureus. In:Food Microbiology: Public Health and SpoilageAspects. Eds M.P.Defigueiredo and D.F. Splittstoesser, Westport, Avi PublishingCo.Google Scholar
  23. Bryan, F.L. (1979). Infections and intoxicationscaused by other bacteria. In: Food-Borne InfectionsandIntoxications 2ndedn. Eds H. Riemann and F.L. Bryan, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Bullerman, L.B. (1976). Examination of Swiss cheesefor incidence of mycotoxin producing moulds. Journal of Food Science 41, 26–8.Google Scholar
  25. Bullerman, L.B. (1979). Significance of mycotoxinsto food safety and human health. Journal ofFood Protection 42, 65–86.Google Scholar
  26. Bullerman, L.B. and Olivigni, F.J. (1974). Mycotoxinproducing potential of moulds isolated from cheddar cheese. Journal of FoodScience 39, 1166–8.Google Scholar
  27. Bullerman, L.B., Schroeder, L.L. and Park, K-Y.(1984). Formation and control of mycotoxins in food. Journal of FoodProtection 47, 637–46.Google Scholar
  28. Chan, K-Y., Woo, M.L., Lam, L.Y. and French, G.L.(1989). Vibrio parahaemolyticus and other halophilic vibrios associated withseafood in Hong Kong. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 66, 57–64.Google Scholar
  29. Charlton, B.R., Kinde, H. and Jensen,L.H. (1990). Environmental survey for Listeria species in California milkprocessing plants. Journal of Food Protection 53, 198–201.Google Scholar
  30. Cliver, D.O. (1979). Viral infections. In: Food-BorneInfections and Intoxications 2nd edn. Eds. H. Riemann and F.L.Bryan, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. Cliver, D.O. (1987). Foodborne disease in the UnitedStates, 1946-1986. International Journal ofFoodMicrobiology 4,269–77.Google Scholar
  32. Cox, L.J. etal. (1989). Listeria spp. in foodprocessing, non-food and domestic environments. FoodMicrobiology 6, 49–61.Google Scholar
  33. D’Aoust, Y-J. (1991). Pathogenicity of foodborne Salmonella.International Journal of FoodMicrobiology 12, 17–40.Google Scholar
  34. De Boer, E., Seldam, W.M. and Oosterom, J.(1986). Characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica and related speciesisolated from foods and porcine tonsils in the Netherlands. InternationalJournal of FoodMicrobiology 3,217–224.Google Scholar
  35. Dewberry,E.B. (1959). Food Poisoning 4th edn, London Hill.Google Scholar
  36. DHSS (1969). On the State of Public Health forthe Year 1968. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  37. DHSS (1974). On the State of Public Health forthe Year 1972. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  38. DHSS (1976). On the State of Public Health forthe Year 1974. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  39. DHSS (1977). On the State of Public Health forthe Year 1976. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  40. DHSS (1980). On the State of Public Health forthe Year 1978. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  41. DHSS (1987). On the State of Public Health forthe Year 1986. London, HMSO.Google Scholar
  42. Dirksen, J. and Flagg, P. (1988).Pathogenic organisms in dairy products; cause, effects and control. Food Science andTechnology Today 2,41–3.Google Scholar
  43. Doyle, M.P. etal. (1987). Survivalof Listeria monocytogenesinmilk during high-temperature, short-time pasteurization. Applied andEnvironmental Microbiology 53, 1433–8.Google Scholar
  44. Edwards, A.T., Roulson, M. and Ironside, M.J.(1988). A milk-borne outbreak of serious infection due to Streptococcuszooepidemicus (Lancefield Group C). Epidemiology and Infection 101, 43–51.Google Scholar
  45. Evenson, M.L., Hinds, M.W., Bernstein, R.S. andBergdoll, M.S. (1988). Estimation of human dose of staphylococcal enterotoxin Afrom a large outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning involving chocolate milk. InternationalJournal of Food Microbiology 7, 311–16.Google Scholar
  46. Fernandez Garayzabel, J.F. etal. (1987). Survivalof Listeria monocytogenesinraw milk treated inapilot plant pasteurizer. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 63, 533–7.Google Scholar
  47. Fricker, C.R. and Park, R.W.A. (1989). A two-yearstudy of the distribution of ‘thermophilic’ campylobacters in human, environmentaland food samples from the Reading area with particular reference totoxin production and heat-stable serotype. Journal ofApplied Bacteriology 66, 477–90.Google Scholar
  48. Fricker, C.R. and Tompsett, S. (1989). Aeromonas spp.in foods: a significant cause of food poisoning? International Journal ofFood Microbiology 9, 17–23.Google Scholar
  49. Frobish, R.A. etal. (1986). Aflatoxinresidues in milk and dairy cows after ingestion of naturally contaminatedgrain. Journal of Food Protection 49, 781–5.Google Scholar
  50. Genigeorgis, C., Hassuneh, M. and Collins, P.(1986). Campylobacter jejuni infection on poultry farms and itseffect on poultry meat contamination during slaughtering. Journal of FoodProtection 49, 895–903.Google Scholar
  51. George, S.M., Lund, B.M. and Brocklehurst, T.F.(1988). The effect of pH and temperature on initiation of growth of Listeriamonocytogenes. Lettersin Applied Microbiology 6, 153–6.Google Scholar
  52. Gibson, E.A. (1969). Salmonella infection in farmlivestock in Britain. In: Bacterial Food Poisoning. Ed. J. Taylor,London, Cox and Wyman.Google Scholar
  53. Gilbert, R.J. (1979). Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis. In: Food-BorneInfections and Intoxications 2nd edn. Eds. H. Riemann and F.L. Bryan,New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  54. Gilbert, R.J. (1983). Food-borne infections andintoxications - recent trends and prospects for the future. In: FoodMicrobiology: Advances and Prospects. Eds T.A. Roberts and F.A. Skinner, London, AcademicPress.Google Scholar
  55. Gilbert, R.J., Stringer, M.F. and Peace, T.C.(1974). The survival and growth of Bacillus cereus in boiled and friedrice in relation to outbreaks of food poisoning. Journal of Hygiene,Cambridge73,433–44.Google Scholar
  56. Gilbert, R.J. and Taylor, A.J. (1976). Bacilluscereus food poisoning. In: Microbiology in Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Eds. F.A. Skinner and J.G. Carr, London,Academic Press.Google Scholar
  57. Gitter,M.,Bradley, R. and Blampied, P.H. (1980). Listeriamonocytogenes infection inbovinemastitis.The Veterinary Record 107, 390–3.Google Scholar
  58. Glass, K.A. and Doyle, M.P. (1989). Fate of Listeriamonocytogenes in processed meatproductsduringrefrigerated storage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55,1565–9.Google Scholar
  59. Goepfert, J.M., Spira, W.M., Glatz, B.A. and Kim,H.U. (1973). Pathogenicity of Bacillus cereus. In: TheMicrobiological Safety of Food. Eds B.C. Hobbs and J.H.B. Christian,London, AcademicPress.Google Scholar
  60. Goldner, S.B., Solberg, M., Jones, S. andPost, L.S. (1986). Enterotoxin synthesis by nonsporulating cultures of Clostridiumperfringens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 52, 407–12.Google Scholar
  61. Greenwood, M.H. and Hooper, W.L. (1983). Chocolatebars contaminated with Salmonella napoli: an infective study. British MedicalJournal 286, 1394.Google Scholar
  62. Greenwood, M.G., Roberts, D. and Burden, P. (1991).The occurrence of Listeria species in milk and dairyproducts: a national survey in England and Wales. International Journal ofFood Microbiology12,197–206.Google Scholar
  63. Halpin Dohnalek,M.I. and Marth, E.H. (1989). Staphylococcus aureus: production ofextracellularcompoundsand behavior in foods - a review. Journal of Food Protection 52,267–82.Google Scholar
  64. Harrison, M.A. and Carpenter, S.L. (1989). Survivalof large populations of Listeriamonocytogenes on chickenbreasts processed using moist heat. Journal of Food Protection 52,376–8.Google Scholar
  65. Harvey, J., Patterson, J.T. and Gibbs, P.A. (1982).Enterotoxigenicity of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolatedfrom poultry: raw poultry carcases as a potential food-poisoning hazard. Journalof AppliedBacteriology 52,251–8.Google Scholar
  66. Harvey, R.W.S. (1973). Salmonella contaminatedanimal feed in relation to infection in animals and man. In: TheMicrobiological Safety of Food. Eds B.C. Hobbs and J.H.B. Christian,London,AcademicPress.Google Scholar
  67. Harvey, R.W.S., Price, T.H., Foster, D.W. andGriffiths, W.C. (1969). Salmonellas in sewage. A study in latent human infection. Journalof Hygiene, Cambridge 67, 517–23.Google Scholar
  68. Hauschild, A.W.H.,Hilsheimer, R., Weiss, K.F. and Burke, R.B. (1988). Clostridium botulinum in honey, syrups anddry infant cereals. Journal of Food Protection 51, 892–4.Google Scholar
  69. Hays, P.S. etal. (1986). Isolationof Listeria monocytogenesfromraw milk. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 51, 438–40.Google Scholar
  70. Heisick, J.E., Wagner, D.E., Nierman, M.L. and Peeler, J.T. (1989). Listeria spp. found onfreshmarketproduce. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55, 1925–7.Google Scholar
  71. Hewitt, J.H. etal. (1986). Largeoutbreaks of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning associated with theconsumption of boiled salmon. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 97, 71–80.Google Scholar
  72. Hobbs, B.C. and Hugh-Jones, M.E. (1969).Epidemiological studies on Salmonella senftenberg. 1. Relations betweenanimal foodstuff, animal and human isolations. Journal of Hygiene,Cambridge 67, 81–8.Google Scholar
  73. Hobbs, G. (1976). Clostridium botulinum andits importance in fishery products. Advances in FoodResearch 22, 135–85.Google Scholar
  74. Hobbs, G. (1987). Microbiology offish. In: Essaysin Agricultural and Food Microbiology. Eds J.R. Norris and G.L.Pettipher, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  75. Hockin, J.C. etal. (1989). Aninternational outbreak of Salmonella nima from imported chocolate. Journal of FoodProtection 52,51–4.Google Scholar
  76. Hooper, W.L., Barrow, G.I. and McNab, D.J.N. (1974).Vibrio parahaemolyticus food poisoning in Britain. Lancet 1, 1100–2.Google Scholar
  77. Hopper, S.A. and Mawer, S. (1988). Salmonellaenteritidis in a commercial laying flock. VeterinaryRecord 123, 351.Google Scholar
  78. Humphrey, T.J. and Beckett, P. (1987). Campylobacterjejuni in dairy cows and raw milk. Epidemiology and Infection 98, 263–9.Google Scholar
  79. Humphrey, T.J., Mead, G.C. and Rowe, B. (1988).Poultry meat as a source of human salmonellosis in England and Wales. Epidemiologyand Infection 100, 175–84.Google Scholar
  80. International Commission on MicrobiologialSpecifications for Foods (ICMSF) (1980). MicrobialEcology of FoodsVol2 (Food Commodities). New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  81. Johnson, R.P., Clarke, R.C. etal. (1996). Growingconcerns and recent outbreaks involving non-0l57:H7 serotypes of verotoxigenic Escherichiacoli. Journal of Food Protection 59, 1112–22.Google Scholar
  82. Jones, P.H. etal. (1981). Campylobacterenteritis associated with the consumption of free school milk. Journalof Hygiene, Cambridge 87, 155–62.Google Scholar
  83. Jones, P.W., Collins, P., Brown, G.T.H. and Aitken,M. (1982). Transmission of Salmonellambandaka to cattle fromcontaminated feed. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 88, 255–63.Google Scholar
  84. Junttila, J.R., Niemela, S.I. and Hirn, J. (1988).Minimum growth temperatures of Listeriamonocytogenes andnon-haemolytic listeria. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 65, 321–7.Google Scholar
  85. Ketley, J.M. (1997). Pathogenesis of enteric infection by Campylobacter.Microbiology 143, 5–21.Google Scholar
  86. Khakhria, R., Lior, H. (1992). Extended phage-typingscheme for Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Epidem Infect. 108, 403–14.Google Scholar
  87. Lacey, R.W. and Kerr, K.G. (1989). Opinion.Listeriosis - the need for legislation. Letters inAppliedMicrobiology 8,121–2.Google Scholar
  88. Lammerding, A.A. etal. (1988).Prevalence of Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter in fresh pork, beef, vealand poultry in Canada. Journal of Food Protection 51, 47–52.Google Scholar
  89. Lior, H. (1984). New extended biotyping scheme for Campylobacterjejuni, Campylobacter coli and ‘Campylobacter laridis’. Journal ofClinical Microbiology 20, 636–40.Google Scholar
  90. Lovett, J. etal. (1990).High-temperature short-time pasteurization inactivates Listeriamono-cytogenes.Journal of Food Protection 53, 734–8.Google Scholar
  91. Lynt, R.K., Kautter, D.A. and Read, R.B. (1975).Botulism in commercially canned foods. Journalof Milk and FoodTechnology 38,546–50.Google Scholar
  92. MacDonald, K.L. etal. (1985). Amultistate outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichiacoli in imported semisoft cheese. Journal of Infectious Diseases 151, 716–20.Google Scholar
  93. MacGowan, A.P., Bowker, K., McLaughlin, J. etal. (1994). Theoccurrence and seasonal change in the isolation of Listeria in shop boughtfoodstuffs, human faeces, sewage and soil from urban sources. InternationalJournal of Food Microbiology 21, 325–34.Google Scholar
  94. Manier, R. etal. (1973). Anoutbreak of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli foodborne disease traced to importedFrench cheese. Lancet 2, 1376–8.Google Scholar
  95. Marth, E.H. and Calanog, B.G. (1976). Toxigenicfungi. In: Food Microbiology: Public Healthand Spoilage Aspects. Eds M.P. Defìgueiredo and D.F. Splittstoesser, Westport, Avi Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  96. Melling, J. and Capel, B.J. (1978). Characteristicsof Bacillus cereus emetic toxin. FEMS Microbiology Letters 4,133–5.Google Scholar
  97. Miller, I.S., Bolton, F.J. and Dawkins, H.C. (1987). An outbreak of Campylobacterenteritistransmittedby puppies. Environmental Health 95 (July), 11–4.Google Scholar
  98. Morgan, I.R., Krautil, F.L. and Craven, J.A. (1987).Effect of time in lairage on caecal and carcass contamination of slaughter pigs. Epidemiologyand Infection 98, 323–30.Google Scholar
  99. Moss, M.O. (1989). Mycotoxins of Aspergillus andother filamentous fungi. In: Filamentous Fungiin Foods andFeeds. EdsM.O. Moss, B. Jarvis and F.A. Skinner. Journal of Applied Bacteriology SymposiumSupplement No. 18, 69S–81S.Google Scholar
  100. Nakamura, M. and Schulze, J.A. (1970). Clostridiumperfringens food poisoning. Annual Review ofMicrobiology 24, 359–72.Google Scholar
  101. Nilehn, B. (1969). Studies on Yersiniaenterocolitica with special reference to bacterial diagnosis and occurrence inhuman acute enteric disease. Acta PathologicaetMicrobiologicaScandinavicaSupplement,206, 1–48.Google Scholar
  102. Noah, N.D., Bender, A.E., Readidi, G.B. and Gilbert,R.J. (1980). Food poisoning from raw red kidney beans. British MedicalJournal 281, 236–7.Google Scholar
  103. Notermans, S. and van Otterdijk, R.L.M. (1985).Production of enterotoxin A by Staphylococcusaureus in food. InternationalJournal of Food Microbiology, 2 145–9.Google Scholar
  104. Olsvik, O., Wasteson, Y., Lund, A. and Hornes, E.(1991). Pathogenic Escherichia coli found in food. InternationalJournal of Food Microbiology 12, 103–14.Google Scholar
  105. O’Mahony, M. etal. (1990). Anoutbreak of foodborne botulism associated with contaminated hazelnut yoghurt.Epidemiology and Infection 104, 389–95.Google Scholar
  106. Oosterom, J. (1991). Epidemiological studies andproposed preventive measures in the fight against human salmonellosis. InternationalJournal of Food Microbiology 12, 41–52.Google Scholar
  107. Ormay, L. and Novotny, T. (1969). The significanceof Bacillus cereus food poisoning in Hungary. In: TheMicrobiology of Dried Foods. Eds E. H. Kampelmacher, M. Ingram andD.A. A. Mossel,Bilthoven,International Association of Microbiological Societies.Google Scholar
  108. Paster, N. and Bullerman, L.B. (1988). Mouldspoilage and mycotoxin formation in grains as controlled by physical means. InternationalJournal of Food Microbiology 7, 257–65.Google Scholar
  109. Pavlovic, M., Plestine, R. and Krogh, P. (1979).Ochratoxin A contamination of foodstuffs in an area with Balkan(endemic) nepthropathy. Acta PathologicaetMicrobiologicaScandinavica 87B, 243–6.Google Scholar
  110. Perales, I. and Audicana, A. (1989). The role ofhens’ eggs in outbreaks of salmonellosis in north Spain. International Journal ofFood Microbiology 8, 175–80.Google Scholar
  111. Penner, J.L., Hennessy, J.N. (1980).Passive hemagglutination technique for serotyping Campylobacter fetus subsp.jejuni on the basis of soluble heat-stable antigens. Journal ofClinical Microbiology12,732–7.Google Scholar
  112. PHLS Report. (1989). Memorandum of evidence to theAgriculture Committee inquiry on salmonella in eggs. PHLS MicrobiologyDigest 6, 1–9.Google Scholar
  113. PHLS Working Group, Scovgaard, N. and Nielsen, B.B. (1972). Salmonellas in pigsand animalfeedingstuffs in England and Wales and in Denmark. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 70,127–40.Google Scholar
  114. Piddock. L. (1995). Quinolone resistanceand Campylobacter spp. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 36,891–8.Google Scholar
  115. Porter,LA. and Reid, T.M.S. (1980).A milk-borne outbreak of Campylobacter infection. Journal ofHygiene,Cambridge 84,415–19.Google Scholar
  116. Ratnam, S. and March, S.B. (1986). Laboratorystudies on salmonella-contamination cheese involved in a major outbreak of gastroenteritis.Journal of Applied Bacteriology 61, 51–6.Google Scholar
  117. Ray, L.L. and Bullerman, L.B. (1982). Preventinggrowth of potentially toxic molds using antifungal agents. Journalof Food Protection 45, 953–63.Google Scholar
  118. Reichart, C.A. and Fung, D.Y.C. (1976).Thermal inactivation and subsequent reactivation of staphylococcalenterotoxin B in selected liquid foods. Journal of Milk and Food Technology39,516–20.Google Scholar
  119. Reilly, W.J. etal. (1988).Poultry-borne salmonellosis in Scotland. Epidemiology and Infection 101, 115–22.Google Scholar
  120. Riemann, H. (1969). Botulism-types A, B and F. In: Food-BorneInfections and Intoxications. Ed. H. Riemann, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  121. Riordan, T. etal. (1985). Anoutbreak of food-borne enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea in England. Journalof Infection 11, 167–71.Google Scholar
  122. Roberts, D. (1972). Observations on procedures forthawing and spit-roasting frozen dressed chickens, and post-cooking care andstorage: with particular reference to food-poisoning bacteria. Journal ofHygiene, Cambridge 70,565–88.Google Scholar
  123. Robinson, D.A. etal. (1979). Campylobacterenteritis associated with consumption of unpasteurized milk. BritishMedical Journal 1, 1171–3.Google Scholar
  124. Ryser, E.T. and Marth, E.H. (1987). Fate of Listeriamonocytogenes during themanufacture andripeningof Camembertcheese.Journal of Food Protection 50, 372–8.Google Scholar
  125. Ryser, E.T., Marth, E.H. and Doyle, M.P. (1985).Survival of Listeria monocytogenesduring manufacture andstorage of cottage cheese. Journal of Food Protection 48, 746–50.Google Scholar
  126. Sakaguchi, G. (1969). Botulism-type E. In: Food-BorneInfections and Intoxications. Ed. H. Riemann, New York, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  127. Sakazaki, R. and Shimada, T. (1986). Vibrio speciesas causative agents of food-borne infection. In: Developments inFood Microbiology - 2. Ed. R.K. Robinson, London, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  128. Salvat, G., Toquin, M.T. and Colin, M.P. (1995).Control of Listeria monocytogenesinthedelicatessenindustries: the lessons of a listeriosis outbreak in France. InternationalJournal of FoodMicrobiology 25,75–81.Google Scholar
  129. Scheusner, D.L. and Harmon, L.G. (1973). Growth andenterotoxin production by various strains of Staphylococcus aureus in selectedfoods. Journal of Food Science 38, 474–6.Google Scholar
  130. Schiemann, D.H. (1988). Examination of enterotoxinproduction of low temperature by Yersinia spp. in culture mediaand foods. Journal of Food Protection 51, 571–3.Google Scholar
  131. Scotland, S.M. (1988). Toxins. In: Enterobacteriaceaein the Environment and as Pathogens. Eds B.M. Lund, M. Sussman, D. Jones and M.F.Stringer. Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement No. 17,109S–129S.Google Scholar
  132. Scott, P.M. (1981). Toxins of Penicillium speciesused in cheese manufacture. Journal of FoodProtection 44, 702–10.Google Scholar
  133. Sears, C. and Kaper, J.B. (1996).Enteric Bacterial Toxins: Mechanisms of Action and Linkage to IntestinalSecretion. Microbiological Reviews 60, 167–81.Google Scholar
  134. Sharp, J.C.M. (1996). Milk and dairy products. PHLSMicrobiology Digest 3, 28–9.Google Scholar
  135. Sharp, J.C.M., Collier, M.W. and Gilbert, R.J. (1979). Food poisoning inhospitals in Scotland.Journalof Hygiene, Cambridge 83, 231–6.Google Scholar
  136. Sheard, J.B. (1981). Food poisoning in Englandduring 1979. Another year of high incidence. Environmental Health 79, 204–9.Google Scholar
  137. Sheard, J.B. (1986). Food poisoning in England andWales during 1983. A new title but still the same problems. Environmental Health 94,57–62.Google Scholar
  138. Sheard, J.B. (1987). Food poisoning cases nearlydouble the level of 1970. Environmental Health 95, 10–15.Google Scholar
  139. Shinoda, S., Yamamoto, S., Tomochika, K-I. andMiyoshi, S-I. (1979). Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157 :H7infection. Japanese Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 43, 1–14.Google Scholar
  140. Skirrow, M.B. (1977). Campylobacter enteritis:a new disease. British Medical Journal 2, 9–11.Google Scholar
  141. Slade, P.J., Fistrovici, E.C. and Collins-Thompson, D.L. (1989). Persistence atsource of Listeria spp. in raw milk.International Journal of Food Microbiology 9, 197–203.Google Scholar
  142. Small, R.G. andSharp, J.C.M. (1979). A milk-borne outbreak due to Salmonella dublin. Journalof Hygiene,Cambridge 82,95–100.Google Scholar
  143. Smart, J.L., Roberts, T.A., Stringer, M.F. and Shah,N. (1979). The incidence and serotypes of Clostridium perfringens on beef, pork andlamb carcasses. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 46, 377–83.Google Scholar
  144. Smith, G.R., Milligan, R.A. and Moryson, J. (1978). Clostridiumbotulinum in aquatic environments in Great Britain and Ireland. Journalof Hygiene, Cambridge 80, 431–8.Google Scholar
  145. St. Louis, M.E. etal. (1988). Theemergence of Grade A eggs as a major source of Salmonellaenteritidis infections. Journalof the American Medical Association 259, 2103–7.Google Scholar
  146. Steinbruegge, E.G., Maxcy, R.B. and Liewen, M.B.(1988). Fate of Listeriamonocytogenes on ready to serve lettuce.Journal of Food Protection 51, 596–9.Google Scholar
  147. Stevens, A. etal. (1989). A largeoutbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 associated with eggs fromoverseas. Epidemiology and Infection 103, 425–33.Google Scholar
  148. Stott, J.A., Hodgson, J.E. and Chaney, J.C. (1975).Incidence of salmonellae in animal feed and the effect of pelleting on content ofEnterobacteriaceae. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 39, 41–6.Google Scholar
  149. Sugiyama, H. and Sofos, J.N. (1988). Botulism. In: Developmentsin Food Microbiology - 4. Ed. R.K. Robinson, London, Elsevier AppliedScience.Google Scholar
  150. Sutton, R.G.A., Kendall, M. and Hobbs, B.C. (1972).The effect of two methods of cooking and cooling on Clostridium welchii andother bacteria in meat. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 70, 415–24.Google Scholar
  151. Swaminathan, B., Harmon, M.C. and Mehlman, I.J.(1982). A review: Yersinia enterocolitica.Journal ofApplied Bacteriology 52, 151–83.Google Scholar
  152. Tamminga, S.K., Beumer, R.R., Kampelmacher,E.H.and Van Leusden, F.M. (1977). Survival of Salmonella eastbourne in milk chocolateprepared with artificially contaminated milk powder. Journal ofHygiene, Cambridge 79, 333–7.Google Scholar
  153. Thompson, C.A. and Vanderzant, C. (1976).Relationship of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters, water andsediment, and bacteriological and environmental indices. Journal of FoodScience 41,117–22.Google Scholar
  154. Threlfall, E.J., Frost, J.A., Ward, L.R. and Rowe,B. (1996). Increasing spectrum of resistance in multiresistant Salmonellatyphimurium. Lancet 347, 1053–4.Google Scholar
  155. Todd, E.C.D. (1996). Worldwide surveillance offoodborne disease: the need to improve. Journal ofFood Protection 59, 82–92.Google Scholar
  156. Van Den Broek, M.J.M., Mossel, D.A.A. and Eggenkamp,A.E.(1979). Occurrence of Vibrioparahaemolyticus in Dutch mussels.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 37, 438–42.Google Scholar
  157. Van Netten, P. etal. (1990).Psychrotrophic strains of Bacillus cereus producing enterotoxin. Journal ofApplied Bacteriology 69,73–9.Google Scholar
  158. Vernon, E. (1977). Food poisoning and salmonellainfections in England and Wales, 1973-75. Public Health, London 91, 225–35.Google Scholar
  159. Walker, S.J. and Gilmour, A. (1990). Production ofenterotoxin by Yersinia species isolated from milk. Journalof Food Protection 53, 751–4.Google Scholar
  160. Waterman, S.C. (1982). The heat sensitivity of Campylobacterjejuni in milk. Journal of Hygiene,Cambridge 88, 529–33.Google Scholar
  161. Wells, G.A.H. and Wylesmith, J.W. (1995). Theneuropathology and epidemiology of the bovine spongiform encephalopy. BrainPathology 5, 91–103.Google Scholar
  162. Williams, J.E. (1981). Salmonellas in poultry feeds- worldwide review. Part 1. World’s PoultryScience Journal 37, 6–19.Google Scholar
  163. Wiseman, D.W. and Marth, E.H. (1983). Behavior ofaflatoxin M1 in yogurt, buttermilk and kefir. Journal of FoodProtection 46,115–18.Google Scholar
  164. Woolaway, M.C. etal. (1986).International outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning caused by contaminatedlasagne. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 96, 67–73.Google Scholar
  165. Wray, C. and Sojka, W.J. (1977). Reviews of theprogress of Dairy Science: bovine salmonellosis. Journal of DairyResearch 44383–425.Google Scholar
  166. Wu, M.T., Ayres, J.C. and Koehler, P.E. (1974).Toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia isolated from aged, cured meats. AppliedMicrobiology 28, 1094–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. Forsythe
    • 1
  • P. R. Hayes
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesThe Nottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyThe University of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations