Advertisement

Flavor and aroma problems and their measurement in meat, poultry and fish products

  • J. I. Gray
  • A. M. Pearson
  • F. J. Monahan
Part of the Advances in Meat Research book series (ADMERE, volume 9)

Abstract

Meat, poultry and fish products are normally highly desired for their distinctive and highly prized flavors, which have been discussed in chapters 7 and 9. Departures from normal flavors, however, are not uncommon in these products and result in poor acceptability or even rejection by consumers.

Keywords

Lipid Oxidation Fish Product Dimethyl Sulfide Oxidative Rancidity Boar Taint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackman, R.G., Dale, J. and Hingley, J. (1966) Deposition of dimethyl-β-propiothetin in Atlantic cod during feeding experiments. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 23, 487.Google Scholar
  2. Ackman, R.G., Hingley, J. and May, A.W. (1967) Dimethyl-β-propiothetin and dimethyl sulphide in Labrador cod. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 24, 457.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, R., Farber, I. and Lerke, D. (1964) Bacteriology of spoilage of fish muscle. 2. Incidence of spoilers during spoilage. Appl. Microbiol. 12, 277.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, C.E. and Foegeding, E.A. (1981) Some lipid characteristics and interactions in muscle foods. Food Technol., 35(5), 253.Google Scholar
  5. Angelini, P., Merritt, C., Jr., Mendelsohn, J.M. and King, F.J. (1975) Effect of irradiation on volatile constituents of stored haddock flesh. J. Food Sci. 40, 197.Google Scholar
  6. Apte, S. and Morrissey, P A. (1987a) Effect of water-soluble haem and non-haem iron complexes on lipid oxidation of heated muscle systems. Food Chem. 26, 213.Google Scholar
  7. Apte, S. and Morrissey, P.A. (1987b) Effect of haemoglobin and ferritin on lipid oxidation in raw and cooked muscle systems. Food Chem. 26, 127.Google Scholar
  8. Asghar, A., Gray, J.I, Buckley, D.J., Pearson, A.M. and Booren, A.M. (1988) Perspectives on warmed-over flavor. Food Technol. 42(6), 102.Google Scholar
  9. Ayres, J.C. (1960) Temperature relationships and some other characteristics of the microbial flora developing on refrigerated beef. Food Res. 25, 1.Google Scholar
  10. Batzer, O.F. and Doty, D.M. (1955) Nature of undesirable odors formed by gamma irradiation of beef. J. Agric. Food Chem. 3, 64.Google Scholar
  11. Batzer, O.F., Sliwinski, R.A., Pik, K., Fox, J.B., Jr., Doty, D.M., Pearson, A.M. and Spooner, M.E. (1959) Some factors influencing radiation induced chemical changes in raw beef. Food Technol. 13, 501.Google Scholar
  12. Beatty, S.A. (1938) Studies of fish spoilage. 2. The origin of trimethylamine produced during the spoilage of cod muscle press juice. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 4, 63.Google Scholar
  13. Benedict, R.C., Strange, E.D. and Swift, C.E. (1975) Effect of lipid antioxidants on the stability of meat during storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23, 167.Google Scholar
  14. Berry, K.E. and Sink, J.D. (1971) Isolation and identification of 3α-hydroxy-5α-androst-16-ene and 5α-androst-16-en-3-one from porcine tissues. J. Endocrinol. 51, 223.Google Scholar
  15. Berry, K.E., Sink, J.D., Patton, S. and Ziegler, J.H. (1971) Characterization of the swine sex odor (SSO) components in boar fat volatiles. J. Food Sci. 36, 1086.Google Scholar
  16. Bouthilet, R.H. (1951a) Chicken flavor: Fractionation of the volatile constituents. Food Res. 16, 137.Google Scholar
  17. Bouthilet, R.H. (1951b) Chicken flavor: The source of the meat flavor component. Food Res. 16, 201.Google Scholar
  18. Bowling, R.A., Riggs, J.K., Smith, G.C., Carpenter, Z.L., Reddish, R.L. and Butler, O.D. (1978) Production, carcass and palatability characteristics of steers produced by different management systems. J. Anim. Sci. 46, 333.Google Scholar
  19. Brennan, M.J. and Bernhard, R.A. (1964) Headspace constituents of canned beef. Food Technol. 18, 743.Google Scholar
  20. Brooks, R.I. and Pearson, A.M. (1986) Steroid hormone pathways in the pig, with special emphasis on boar odor: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 62, 632.Google Scholar
  21. Brooks, R.I. and Pearson, A.M. (1989) Odor thresholds of the C1916-steroids responsible for boar odor in pork. Meat Sci. 24, 11.Google Scholar
  22. Brooks, R.I., Pearson, A.M., Hogberg, M.G., Pestka, J.J. and Gray, J.I. (1986) An immunological approach for prevention of boar odor in pork. J. Anim. Sci. 62, 1279.Google Scholar
  23. Brophy, P.J. and Gower, D.B. (1972) Studies on the inhibition of 5-pregnane-3,20-dione on the biosynthesis of 16-androstenes and dehydroepiandrostone in boar testis preparations. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 360, 252.Google Scholar
  24. Brown, A.D. and Weidman, J.F. (1958) The taxonomy of the psychrophilic meat spoilage bacteria: A reassessment. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 21, 11.Google Scholar
  25. Brown, H.G., Melton, S.L., Riemann, M.J. and Backus, W.R. (1979) Effects of energy intake and food source on chemical changes and flavor of ground beef during frozen storage. J. Anim. Sci. 48, 338.Google Scholar
  26. Buckley, D.J., Gray, J.I., Asghar, A., Booren, A.M., Crackel, R.L., Price, J.F. and Miller, E.R. (1989) Effects of dietary antioxidants and oxidized oil on membranal lipid stability and pork product quality. J. Food Sci. 54, 1193.Google Scholar
  27. Campion, D.R., Field, R.A., Riley, M.L. and Smith, G.M. (1976) Effect of weight on carcass merit of very heavy market ram lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 43, 1218.Google Scholar
  28. Castell, C.H. and Greenough, M.F. (1959) The action of Pseudomonas on fish muscle. 4. Relation between substrate composition and the development of odors by Pseudomonas fragi. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 16, 21.Google Scholar
  29. Castell, C.H., Greenough, M.F. and Dale, J. (1959) The action of Pseudomonas on fish muscle. Identification of organisms producing fruity and oniony odors. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 16, 13.Google Scholar
  30. Chai, T., Chen, C., Rosen, A. and Levin, R.E. (1968) Detection and incidence of Pseudomonas putrefaciens and fluorescent pseudomonas on haddock fillets. Appl. Microbiol. 16, 1738.Google Scholar
  31. Champagne, J.R. and Nawar, W.W. (1969) The volatile components of irradiated beef and pork fats. J. Food Sci. 34, 335.Google Scholar
  32. Chastain, M.F., Huffman, D.L., Hsieh, W.H. and Cordray, J.C. (1982) Antioxidants in restructured beef/pork steaks. J. Food Sci. 47, 1779.Google Scholar
  33. Chen, T.C., Nawar, W.W. and Levin, R.E. (1974) Identification of major high-boiling volatile compounds produced during refrigerated storage of haddock fillets. Appl. Microbiol. 28, 679.Google Scholar
  34. Cook, L.J., Scott, T.W., Ferguson, K.A. and McDonald, I.W. (1970) Production of polyunsaturated ruminant body fats. Nature 228, 178.Google Scholar
  35. Coxon, D. (1987) Measurement of lipid oxidation. Food Sci. Technol. Today 1, 164.Google Scholar
  36. Crackel, R.L., Gray, J.I., Booren, A.M., Pearson, A.M. and Buckley, D.J. (1988a) Effects of antioxidants on lipid stability in restructured beef steaks. J. Food Sci. 53, 656.Google Scholar
  37. Crackel, R.L., Gray, J.I., Pearson, A.M., Booren, A.M. and Buckley, D.J. (1988b) Some further observations on the TBA test as an index of lipid oxidation in meat. Food Chem. 28, 187.Google Scholar
  38. Craig, H.B., Pearson, A.M. and Webb, N.B. (1962) Fractionation of the components responsible for sex odor/flavor in pork. Food Sci. 27, 29.Google Scholar
  39. Cramer, D.A. (1983) Chemical compounds implicated in lamb flavor. Food Technol. 37(5), 249.Google Scholar
  40. Cramer, D.A., Barton, R.A., Shorland, F.B. and Czochanska, Z. (1967) A comparison of the effects of white clover (Trifolium repens) and of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on fat composition and flavour of lamb. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 69, 367.Google Scholar
  41. Crawford, L. and Kretsch, M.J. (1976a) GC-MS identification of the volatile components extracted from roasted turkeys fed a basal diet supplemented with tuna oil: Some comments on fishy flavor. J. Food Sci. 41, 1470.Google Scholar
  42. Crawford, L. and Kretsch, M.J. (1976b) The effects of cooking in air or in nitrogen on the development of fishy flavor in the breast meat of turkeys fed tuna oil with and without α-tocopherol supplementation or injection. Fishery Bull. 74, 89.Google Scholar
  43. Crawford, L., Kretsch, M.J., Peterson, D.W. and Lilyblade, A.L. (1975) The remedial and preventative effect of dietary α-tocopherol on the development of fish flavor in the turkey meat. J. Food Sci. 40, 751.Google Scholar
  44. Crocker, E.C. (1948) Flavor of meat. Food Res. 13, 179.Google Scholar
  45. Crouse, J.D., Busboom, J.R., Field, R.A. and Ferrell, C.L. (1981) The effect of breed, diet, sex, location and slaughter weight on lamb growth, carcass composition and meat flavor. J. Anim. Sci. 53, 376.Google Scholar
  46. Cross, H.R. (1987) Sensory characteristics of meat. I. Sensory factors and evaluation, in The Science of Meat and Meat Products, 3rd edn. (eds J.F. Price and B.S. Schweigert), Food and Nutrition Press, Westport, Connecticut, pp. 307–27.Google Scholar
  47. Davies, W.L. and Gill, E. (1936) Investigations on fishy flavors. Chem. Indus. (London) 55, 1415.Google Scholar
  48. Decker, E.A. and Welch, B. (1990) Role of ferritin as a lipid oxidation catalyst in muscle food. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38, 674.Google Scholar
  49. Diemair, W. and Schams, F. (1962) Die anwendung Physikalisheen Unterschuhungsmethoden bei der Analyse none Fluchtigen geruchs und Geschmacksstoffen in Lebensmittelen. Z. Anal. Chem. 189, 161.Google Scholar
  50. Drumm, T.D. and Spanier, A.M. (1991) Changes in the content of lipid autoxidation and sulfur-containing compounds in cooked beef during storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39, 336.Google Scholar
  51. Dubravcic, M.F. and Nawar, W.W. (1968) Effects of irradiation on fish oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 45, 656.Google Scholar
  52. Dugan, L.R., Jr. (1976) Lipids, in Principles of Food Science. Part I. Food Chemistry (ed. O.R. Fennema), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 139–203.Google Scholar
  53. Dyer, W.J. and Fraser, D.I. (1959) Proteins in fish muscle. 13. Lipid hydrolysis. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 13, 569.Google Scholar
  54. Dyer, W.J. and Mounsey, Y.A. (1945) Amines in fish muscle. II. Development of trimethylamine and other amines. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 6, 359.Google Scholar
  55. Ellis, N.R. and Isbell, H.S. (1926a) Soft pork studies. II. The influence of the character of the ration upon the composition of the body fat of hogs. J. Biol. Chem. 69, 219.Google Scholar
  56. Ellis, N.R. and Isbell, H.S. (1926b) Soft pork studies. III. The effect of food fat upon body fat, as shown by the separation of the individual fatty acids of the body fat. J. Biol. Chem. 69, 239.Google Scholar
  57. Engeseth, N.J., Gray, J.I., Booren, A.M. and Asghar, A. (1993) Improved oxidative stability of veal lipids and cholesterol through dietary vitamin E supplementation. Meat Sci., 35, 1.Google Scholar
  58. Enser, M.B. (1987) What is lipid oxidation? Food Sci. Technol. Today 1, 151.Google Scholar
  59. Farmer, L.J. and Mottram, D.S. (1990) Interaction of lipid in the Maillard reaction between cysteine and ribose: The effect of a triglyceride and three phospholipids on the volatile products. J. Sci. Food Agric. 53, 505.Google Scholar
  60. Faustman, C., Cassens, R.G., Schaefer, D.M., Buege, D.R., Williams, S.N. and Scheller, K.K. (1989) Improvement of pigment and lipid stability in Holstein steer beef by dietary supplementation with vitamin E. J. Food Sci. 54, 858.Google Scholar
  61. Field, R.A. (1971) Effects of castration on meat quality and quantity. J. Anim. Sci. 32, 849.Google Scholar
  62. Field, R.A., Williams, J.C. and Miller, G.J. (1983) The effect of diet on lamb flavor. Food Technol. 37(5), 258.Google Scholar
  63. Field, R.A., Young, O.A. and Asher, G.W. (1985) Characteristics of male fallow deer muscle at a time of sex-related muscle growth. Growth 49, 190.Google Scholar
  64. Ford, A.L. and Park, R.J. (1975) Effect of protected lipid supplement on flavor properties of sheep meats. J. Food Sci. 40, 236.Google Scholar
  65. Frankel, E.N. (1991) Recent advances in lipid oxidation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 54, 495.Google Scholar
  66. Freybler, L.A., Gray, J.L, Asghar, A., Booren, A.M., Pearson, A.M. and Buckley, D.J. (1989) Mechanisms of nitrite stabilization of meat lipids and heme pigments. In Proceedings of the 35th International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 903–8.Google Scholar
  67. Gordon, M. (1987) Novel antioxidants. Food Sci. Technol. Today 1, 172.Google Scholar
  68. Gower, D.B. (1979) Steroid Hormones, Mosby Year Book, Chicago.Google Scholar
  69. Gower, D.B., Harrison, F.A., Heap, R.B. and Patterson, R.L.S. (1970) The identification of C1916-steroids in boar urine and spermatic vein plasma. J. Endocrinol. 46, 18.Google Scholar
  70. Gower, D.B., Harrison, F.A., Heap, R.B. and Saat, Y.A. (1972) Studies of the in-vivo biosynthesis and excretion of C1916-unsaturated steroids in the boar. J. Endocrinol. 52, iii.Google Scholar
  71. Gray, J.I. and Crackel, R.L. (1992) Oxidative flavor changes in meats: Their origin and prevention, in The Chemistry of Muscle-based Foods (eds D.E. Johnston, M.K. Knight and D.A. Ledward), Royal Society of Chemistry, London, pp. 145–68Google Scholar
  72. Gray, J.I. and Pearson, A.M. (1987) Rancidity and warmed-over flavor. Adv. Meat Res., 3, 221.Google Scholar
  73. Greene, B.E. (1969) Lipid oxidation and pigment changes in raw beef. J. Food Sci. 34, 110.Google Scholar
  74. Greene, B.E. and Cumuze, T.H. (1981) Relationship between TBA numbers and inexperienced panelists’assessments of oxidized flavor in cooked beef. J. Food Sci. 47, 52.Google Scholar
  75. Griffiths, N.M. and Patterson, R.L.S. (1970) Human olfactory responses to 5α-androst-16-en-3-one principal component of boar taint. J. Sci. Food Agric. 21, 4.Google Scholar
  76. Gutteridge, J.M.C. and Halliwell, B. (1990) The measurement and mechanism of lipid peroxidation in biological systems. Trends Biochem. Sci. 15, 129.Google Scholar
  77. Gutteridge, J.M.C. and Quinlan, G.J. (1983) Malonaldehyde formation from lipid peroxides in the thiobarbituric acid test: The role of lipid radicals, iron salts, and metal chelators. J. Appl. Biol. 5, 293.Google Scholar
  78. Ha, J. and Lindsey, R.C. (1991) Volatile alkylphenols and thiophenol in species-related characterizing flavors of red meats. J. Food Sci. 56, 1197.Google Scholar
  79. Hansson, K.E., Lundstrom, K., Fjelkner-Modig, S. and Persson, J. (1980). The importance of androsterone and skatole for boar taint. Swedish J. Agric. Res. 10, 167.Google Scholar
  80. Hasegawa, T., Pearson, A.M., Price, J.F. and Lechowich, R.V. (1970a) Action of bacterial growth on the sarcoplasmic and urea soluble proteins from muscle. 1. Effects of Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella enteritidis, Achromobacter liquefaciens, Streptoccocus faecalis and Kurthia zopfii. Appl. Microbiol. 20, 117.Google Scholar
  81. Hasegawa, T., Pearson, A.M., Price, J.F., Rampton, J.H. and Lechowich, R.V. (1970b) Effect of microbial growth upon sarcoplasmic and urea-soluble proteins from muscle. J. Food Sci. 35, 720.Google Scholar
  82. Hawrysh, Z.J., Clandinin, D.R., Robblee, A.R. and Hardin, R.T. (1975) Influence of rapeseed meal on the odor and flavor of eggs from different breeds of chickens. J. Inst. Can. Food Sci. Technol. Aliment. 8, 51.Google Scholar
  83. Hazell, T. (1982) Iron and zinc compounds in the muscle meats of beef, lamb, pork and chicken. J. Sci. Food Agric. 33, 1049.Google Scholar
  84. Hedrick, H.B., Paterson, J.A., Matches, A.G., Thomas, J.D., Morrow, R.E., Stringer, W.C. and Lipsey, R.J. (1983) Carcass and palatability characteristics of beef produced on pasture, corn silage and corn grain. J. Anim. Sci. 57, 791.Google Scholar
  85. Herbert, R.A. and Shewan, J.M. (1975) Precursors of the volatile sulphides in spoiling North Sea cod (Gadus morhua). J. Sci. Food Agric. 26, 1195.Google Scholar
  86. Herbert, R.A. and Shewan, J.M. (1976) Roles played by bacterial and autolytic enzymes in the production of volatile sulphides in spoiling North Sea cod (Gadus morhua). J. Sci. Food Agric. 27, 89.Google Scholar
  87. Herbert, R.A., Ellis, J.R. and Shewan, J.M. (1975) Isolation and identification of the volatile sulphides in spoiling North Sea cod (Gadus morhua). J. Sci. Food Agric. 26, 1187.Google Scholar
  88. Hillig, F., Shelton, L.R., Loughery, J.H. and Eisner, J. (1958) Chemical indices on decomposition in cod. J. Assn. Offic. Agric. Chem. 41, 763.Google Scholar
  89. Hornstein, I. and Crowe, P.F. (1960) Flavor studies in beef and pork. J. Agric. Food Chem. 8, 494.Google Scholar
  90. Hornstein, I. and Wasserman, A. (1987) Sensory characteristics of meat. Part 2. Chemistry of meat flavor, in The Science of Meat and Meat Products, 3rd edn. (eds J.F. Price and B.S. Schweigert), Food and Nutrition Press, Inc., Westport, Connecticut, pp. 329–47.Google Scholar
  91. Hornstein, I., Crowe, P.F. & Sulzbacher, W.L. (1963) Flavor of beef and whale meat. Nature 199, 1252.Google Scholar
  92. Houlihan, C.M. and Ho, C.T. (1985) Natural antioxidants, in Flavor Chemistry of Fats and Oils (eds D.B. Min and T.H. Smouse), American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, Illinois, pp. 117–43.Google Scholar
  93. Hoyland, D.V. and Taylor, A.J. (1989) A modified distillation method for the detection of fat oxidation in foods. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 24, 153.Google Scholar
  94. Hoyland, D.V. and Taylor, A.J. (1991) A review of the methodology of the 2-thiobarbituric acid test. Food Chem. 40, 271.Google Scholar
  95. Hsieh, R.J. and Kinsella, J.E. (1989) Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids: Mechanisms, products, and inhibition with emphasis on fish. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 33, 233.Google Scholar
  96. Huber, W., Brasch, A. and Waly, A. (1953) Effect of processing conditions on organoleptic changes in foodstuffs sterilized with high intensity electrons. Food Technol. 7, 109.Google Scholar
  97. Hughes, R.B. (1960) Chemical studies on the herring (Clupea harengus). 3. The lower fatty acids. J. Sci. Food Agric. 11, 47.Google Scholar
  98. Igene, J.O. and Pearson, A.M. (1979) Role of phospholipids and triglycerides in warmed-over flavor development in meat model systems. J. Food Sci. 44, 1285.Google Scholar
  99. Igene, J.O., King, J.A., Pearson, A.M. and Gray, J.I. (1979) Influence of heme pigments, nitrite and non-heme iron on development of warmed-over flavor in cooked meat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 27, 838.Google Scholar
  100. Igene, J.O., Yamauchi, K., Pearson, A.M., Gray, J.I. and Aust, S.D. (1985) Mechanisms by which nitrite inhibits the development of warmed-over flavour (WOF) in cured meat. Food Chem. 10, 1.Google Scholar
  101. Jay, J.M. (1967) Nature, characteristics and proteolytic properties of beef spoilage bacteria at high and low temperatures. Appl. Microbiol. 15, 943.Google Scholar
  102. Jay, J.M. and Kontou, K.S. (1967) Fate of free amino acids and nucleotides in spoiling beef. Appl. Microbiol. 15, 759.Google Scholar
  103. Johns, A.M., Birkinshaw, L.H. and Ledward, D.A. (1989) Catalysis of lipid oxidation in meat products. Meat Sci. 25, 209.Google Scholar
  104. Jones, N.R. and Murray, J. (1961) Nucleotide degradation in frozen cod (Gadus callarias) muscle. Biochem. J. 80, 26.Google Scholar
  105. Kanner, J. and Doll, L. (1991) Ferritin in turkey muscle tissue: A source of catalytic iron for lipid peroxidation. Agric. Food Chem. 39, 247.Google Scholar
  106. Kanner, J. and Kinsella, J.E. (1983a) Initiation of lipid peroxidation by a peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide/halide system. Lipids 18, 204.Google Scholar
  107. Kanner, J. and Kinsella, J.E. (1983b) Lipid deterioration initiated by phagocyte cells in muscle foods: β-carotene destruction by a myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-halide system. J. Agric. Food Chem. 31, 370.Google Scholar
  108. Kanner, J., Harel, S. and Hazen, B. (1986) Muscle microsomal lipid peroxidation by an ‘iron redox cycle’ system: Initiation by oxyradicals and site-specific mechanism. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34, 506.Google Scholar
  109. Kanner, J., Hazan, B. and Doll, L. (1988) Catalytic ‘free’ iron in muscle foods. J. Agric. Food Chem. 36, 412.Google Scholar
  110. Kanner, J., Harel, S. and Jaffe, R. (1991) Lipid peroxidation of muscle food as affected by NaCl. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38, 251.Google Scholar
  111. Katkov, T. and Gower, D.B. (1970) The biosynthesis of androst-16-enes in boar testis tissue. Biochem. J. 117, 533.Google Scholar
  112. Keller, J.D. and Kinsella, J.E. (1973) Phospholipid changes and lipid oxidation during cooking and frozen storage of raw ground beef. J. Food Sci. 38, 1200.Google Scholar
  113. Kemp, J.D. and Varney, W.Y. (1955) Onion flavor in beef. Ann. Livestock Field Day Rpt. Univ. Kentucky, p. 4.Google Scholar
  114. Kemp, J.D., Crouse, J.D., Deweese, W. and Moody, W.G. (1970) Effect of slaughter weight and castration on carcass characteristics of lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 30, 348.Google Scholar
  115. Kemp, J.D., Skelley, J.M., Jr., Ely, D.G. and Moody, W.G. (1972) Effects of castration and slaughter weight on fatness, cooking losses and palatability of lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 34, 560.Google Scholar
  116. Kramlich, W.E. and Pearson, A.M. (1958) Some preliminary studies on meat flavor. Food Res. 23, 567.Google Scholar
  117. Kunsman, J.E. and Riley, M.L. (1975) A comparison of hydrogen sulfide evolution from cooked lamb and other meat. J. Food Sci. 40, 506.Google Scholar
  118. Larick, D.K., Hedrick, H.B., Bailey, M.E., Williams, J.E., Hancock, D.L., Garner, G.B. and Morrow, R.E. (1987) Flavor constituents of beef as influenced by forage- and grain-feeding. J. Anim. Sci. 52, 245.Google Scholar
  119. Lawrie, R.A. (1966) Meat Science, Pergamon Press, London.Google Scholar
  120. Lea, C.H. (1937) The influence of tissue oxidases on rancidity. Oxidation of the fat of bacon. J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 56, 376.Google Scholar
  121. Lin, C.F, Gray, J.L, Asghar, A., Buckley, D.J., Booren, A.M. and Flegal, C.J. (1989) Effects of dietary oils and α-tocopherol supplementation on lipid composition and stability of broiler meat. J. Food Sci. 54, 1457.Google Scholar
  122. Lerche, H. (1936) Geschlechtsgeruck bei eberkastraten. Z. Fleisch. Milchhyg. 46, 417.Google Scholar
  123. Love, J.D. and Pearson, A.M. (1971) Lipid oxidation in meat and meat products — A review. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 48, 547.Google Scholar
  124. Love, J.D. & Pearson, A.M. (1974). Metmyoglobin and nonheme iron as pro-oxidants in cooked meats. Agric. Food Chem. 22, 1032.Google Scholar
  125. Lovell, R.T. and Sackey, L.A. (1973) Absorption by channel catfish of earthy-musty flavor compounds synthesized by cultures of blue-green algae. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 102, 774.Google Scholar
  126. Luh, B.S., Gonzalez, C.G. and Simone, M. (1964) Hematin and volatile sulfur compounds in strained beef. Food Technol. 18, 216.Google Scholar
  127. Lundstrom, K., Hansson, K.E., Fjelkner-Modig, S. and Persson, J. (1980) Skatole — Another contributor to boar taint. Proc. Europ. Mtg. Meat Res. Workers 26, 300.Google Scholar
  128. Mai, J. and Kinsella, J.E. (1979) Changes in the lipid composition of cooked minced carp (Cyprinus carpio) during frozen storage. J. Food Sci. 44, 1619Google Scholar
  129. Maligalig, L.L., Caul, J.F. and Tiemeir, O.W. (1973) Aroma and flavor of farm-raised channel catfish: Effects of pond condition, storage and diet. Food Prod. Dev. 7(4), 86.Google Scholar
  130. Maligalig, L.L., Caul, J.F., Bassette, R. and Tiemeir, O.W. (1975a) Flavoring live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) experimentally: Effects of concentration and exposure time. J. Food Sci. 40, 1242.Google Scholar
  131. Maligalig, L.L., Caul, J.F., Bassette, R. and Tiemeir, O.W. (1975b) Flavoring live channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) experimentally: Effects of refrigerated storage and of purging on retention of experimental flavors. J. Food Sci. 40, 1246.Google Scholar
  132. Marcuse, R. and Johansson, L. (1973) Studies on the TBA test for rancidity grading. II. TBA reactivity of different aldehyde classes. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 50, 387.Google Scholar
  133. Marusich, W.L., DeRitter, E., Ogrinz, E.F., Keating, J., Mitrovic, M. and Bunnell, R.H. (1975) Effect of supplemental vitamin E in control of rancidity in poultry meat. Poult. Sci. 54, 831.Google Scholar
  134. McMeekin, T.A. (1975) Spoilage association of chicken breast muscle. Appl. Microbiol. 29, 44.Google Scholar
  135. McMeekin, T.A. (1977) Spoilage association of chicken leg muscle. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33, 1244.Google Scholar
  136. McMeekin, T.A. and Patterson, J.T. (1975) Characterization of hydrogen sulfide-producing bacteria isolated from meat and poultry plants. Appl. Microbiol. 29, 165.Google Scholar
  137. Mehrlich, F.P. (1966) The United States Army food irradiation program, in Food Irradiation. Proceeding of the International Symposium of the Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.Google Scholar
  138. Melton, S.L. (1983) Methodology for following lipid oxidation in muscle foods. Food Technol. 37(7), 105.Google Scholar
  139. Melton, S.L., Amiri, M., Davis, G.W. and Backus, W.R. (1982a) Flavor and chemical characteristics of ground beef from grass-, forage-grain and grain-finished steers. J. Anim. Sci. 55, 77.Google Scholar
  140. Melton, S.L., Black, J.M., Davis, G.W. and Backus, W.R. (1982b). Flavor and selected chemical components of ground beef from steers backgrounded on pasture and fed corn up to 140 days. J. Food Sci. 47, 699.Google Scholar
  141. Merritt, C., Jr., Bresnick, S.R., Bazinet, M.L., Walsh, J.T. and Angelini, P. (1959) Determination of volatile compounds of foodstuffs. Techniques and their application to studies of irradiated beef. J. Agric. Food Chem. 7, 784.Google Scholar
  142. Merritt, C., Jr., Angelini, P., Wierbicki, E. and Schuts, G.W. (1975) Chemical changes associated with flavor in irradiated meat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23, 1073.Google Scholar
  143. Merritt, C., Jr., Angelini, P. and Graham, R.A. (1978) Effect of radiation parameters on the formation of radiolysis products in meat and meat substances. Agric. Food Chem. 26, 29.Google Scholar
  144. Miles, R.S., McKeith, F.K., Bechtel, P.J. and Novakofski, J. (1986) Effect of processing, packaging and various antioxidants on lipid oxidation of restructured pork. J. Food Protect. 49, 222.Google Scholar
  145. Miller, A., III, Scanlan, R.A., Lee, J.S., Libbey, L.M. and Morgan, M.E. (1973a) Volatile compounds produced in sterile fish muscle (Sebastes melanops) by Pseudomonas perolens. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 257.Google Scholar
  146. Miller, A., III, Scanlan, R.A., Lee, J.S. and Libbey, L.M. (1973b) Identification of the volatile compounds produced in sterile fish muscle (Sebastes melanops) by Pseudomonas fragi. Appl. Microbiol. 25, 952.Google Scholar
  147. Miller, A., III, Scanlan, R.A., Lee, J.S. and Libbey, L.M. (1973c) Volatile compounds produced in sterile fish muscle (Sebastes melanops) by Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and an Achromobacter species. Appl. Microbiol. 26, 18.Google Scholar
  148. Minor, L.J., Pearson, A.M., Dawson, L.E. and Schweigert, B.S. (1965) Chicken flavor: The identification of some chemical components and the importance of sulfur compounds in the cooked volatile fraction. J. Food Sci. 30, 686.Google Scholar
  149. Monahan, F.J., Buckley, D.J., Gray, J.L, Morrissey, P.A., Asghar, A., Hanrahan, T.J. and Lynch, P.B. (1990) Effect of dietary vitamin E on the stability of raw and cooked pork. Meat Sci. 27, 99.Google Scholar
  150. Monahan, F.J., Gray, J.I., Booren, A.M., Miller, E.R., Buckley, D.J., Morrissey, P.A. and Gomaa, E.A. (1992) Influence of dietary treatment on lipid and cholesterol oxidation in pork. J. Agric. Food Chem. 40, 1310.Google Scholar
  151. Motohiro, T. (1962) Studies on the petroleum odor in canned chum salmon. Memoirs Faculty Fisheries, Hokkaido Univ. 10, 1.Google Scholar
  152. Mottram, D.S. (1987) Lipid oxidation and flavour in meat and meat products. Food Sci. Technol. Today, 1(3), 159.Google Scholar
  153. Mottram, D.S. and Edwards, R.A. (1983) The role of triglycerides and phospholipids in the aroma of cooked beef. J. Sci. Food Agric. 34, 517.Google Scholar
  154. Nawar, M.M. (1978) Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of fats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 26, 21.Google Scholar
  155. Nicol, A.M. and Jagusch, K.T. (1971) The effect of different types of pasture on the organoleptic qualities of lambs. J. Sci. Food Agric. 22, 464.Google Scholar
  156. Obata, Y. and Yamanishi, T. (1952) Chemical study of the substance of fish smell. V. Aroma of cooked fish. Bull. Japan Soc. Sci. Fish. 17, 326.Google Scholar
  157. Ockerman, H.W., Blumer, T.N. and Craig, H.B. (1964) Volatile chemical compounds in dry-cured hams. J. Food Sci. 29, 123.Google Scholar
  158. Olson, D.G. and Rust, R.E. (1973) Oxidative rancidity in dry cured hams: Effect of low prooxidant and antioxidant salt formulations. J. Food Sci. 38, 251.Google Scholar
  159. Osinchak, J.E., Hultin, H.O., Zajicek, O.T., Kelleher, S.D. and Huang, C. (1992) Effect of NaCl on catalysis of lipid oxidation by the soluble fraction of fish muscle. Free Radicals Biol. Med. 12, 35.Google Scholar
  160. Ota, F. (1958) Carbonyl compounds in fish as related to the deterioration. 1. Detection of volatile carbonyl compounds formed in fish flesh. Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish. 24, 334.Google Scholar
  161. Paquette, G., Kupranycz, D.B. and Van de Voort, F.R. (1985) The mechanisms of lipid autoxidation. I. Primary oxidation products. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 18, 112.Google Scholar
  162. Park, R.J. and Ford, A.L. (1975) Effect on meat flavor of period of feeding a protected lipid supplement to lambs. J. Food Sci. 40, 1217.Google Scholar
  163. Park, R.J. and Minson, D.J. (1972) Flavour differences in tropical legumes. J. Agric. Sci. 79, 473.Google Scholar
  164. Park, R.J., Corbett, J.L. and Furnival, E.P. (1972a) Flavour differences in the meat from lambs grazed either lucerne (Medicago sativa) or phalaris (Phalaris tuberosa) pastures. J. Agric. Sci. 78, 47.Google Scholar
  165. Park, R.J., Spurway, R.A. and Wheeler, J.L. (1972b) Flavour differences in meat from sheep grazed on pasture or winter forage crops. J. Agric. Sci. 78, 53.Google Scholar
  166. Park, R.J., Murray, K.E. and Stanley, G. (1974) 4-Hydroxydodec-cis-6-enoic acid lactone: An important component of lamb flavor from animals fed a lipid-protected dietary supplement. Chem. Ind., 380.Google Scholar
  167. Park, R.J., Ford, A.L., Minson, D.J. and Baxter, R.I. (1975) Lucerne-derived flavour in sheep meat as affected by season and duration of grazing. J. Agric. Sci. 84, 209.Google Scholar
  168. Park, R.J., Ford, A.L. and Ratcliff, D. (1976) The influence of two kinds of protected lipid supplements on the flavor of lamb. J. Food Sci. 41, 633.Google Scholar
  169. Partmann, W.Z. (1966) Untersuchungen zur Beutreilung autolytischer und bakteriellea einflusse auf der fishverderb. Z. Lebensmitt. u.-Forsch. 129, 205.Google Scholar
  170. Patterson, R.L.S. (1968) 5α-androst-16-ene-3-one: Compound responsible for taint in boar fat. J. Sci. Food Agric. 19, 31.Google Scholar
  171. Pearson, A.M., Bratzler, L.J., Batzer, O.F., Sliwinski, R.A. and Chang, L. (1959) The influence level of irradiation, temperature and length of storage upon the level of certain chemical components and panel scores for precooked beef, pork and veal. Food Res. 24, 633.Google Scholar
  172. Pearson, A.M., Thompson, R.H. and Price, J.F. (1969) Sex Odor in Pork. Proceedings of the Meat Industry Research Conference, p. 145.Google Scholar
  173. Pearson, A.M., Love, J.D. and Shorland, F.B. (1977) Warmed-over flavor in meat, poultry and fish. Adv. Food Res. 23, 1.Google Scholar
  174. Pearson, A.M., Gray, J.I., Wolzak, A.M. and Horenstein, N.A. (1983) Safety implications of oxidized lipids in muscle foods. Food Technol. 37(7), 121.Google Scholar
  175. Pearson, A.M., Brooks, R.I., Hogberg, M.G., Pestka, J.J. and Gray, J.I. (1986) Immunological prevention of boar odor in uncastrated male pigs. US Patent 4 610 877.Google Scholar
  176. Perrson, T. and von Sydow, E. (1973) Aroma of canned beef. Gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of volatiles. J. Food Sci. 38, 337.Google Scholar
  177. Perrson, T. and von Sydow, E. (1974) The aroma of canned beef: Processing and formulation aspects. J. Food Sci. 39, 406.Google Scholar
  178. Perrson, T., von Sydow, E. and Akesson, C. (1973). Aroma of canned beef. Sensory properties. J. Food Sci. 38, 386.Google Scholar
  179. Pikul, J., Leszczynski, D.E. and Kummerow, F.A. (1983) Elimination of sample autoxidation by butylated hydroxytoluene additions before thiobarbituric assay for malonaldehyde in fat from chicken meat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 31, 1309.Google Scholar
  180. Pikul, J., Leszczynski, D.E., Bechtel, P.J. and Kummerow, F.A. (1984a) Effects of frozen storage and cooking on lipid oxidation in chicken meat. J. Food Sci. 49, 838.Google Scholar
  181. Pikul, J., Leszczynski, D.E. and Kummerow, F.A. (1984b) Relative role of phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters on malonaldehyde formation in fat extracted from chicken meat. J. Food Sci. 49, 704.Google Scholar
  182. Pikul, J., Leszczynski, D.E. and Kummerow, F.A. (1989) Evaluation of the three modified TBA methods for measuring lipid oxidation in chicken meat. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37, 1309.Google Scholar
  183. Pokorny, J., Valentova, H. and Davidik, J. (1985) Modified determination of 2-thiobarbituric acid value in fats and oils. Die Nahrung 29, 31.Google Scholar
  184. Pradel, G. and Adda, J. (1980) Peroxides as a source of error in the quantitative determination of monocarbonyls in cheese. J. Food Sci. 45, 1058.Google Scholar
  185. Reagan, J.O., Carpenter, J.A., Bauer, F.T. and Lowrey, R.S. (1977) Packaging and palatability characteristics of grass- and grain-fed beef. J. Anim. Sci. 45, 716.Google Scholar
  186. Reay, G.A. and Shewan, J.M. (1949) The spoilage of fish and its preservation by chilling. Adv. Food Res. 2, 343.Google Scholar
  187. Reineccius, G.A. (1979) Off-flavors in meat and fish. A review. J. Food Sci. 44, 12.Google Scholar
  188. Rhee, K.S. (1978) Minimization of further lipid peroxidation in the distillation of 2-thiobarbituric acid test of fish and meat. J. Food Sci. 43, 1776.Google Scholar
  189. Rhee, K.S. (1987) Natural antioxidants for meat products, in Warmed-Over Flavor of Meat (eds A.J. St. Angelo and M.E. Bailey), Academic Press, Orlando, Florida, pp. 267–89.Google Scholar
  190. Robinson, M.E. (1924) Haemoglobin and methaemoglobin as oxidative catalysts. Biochem. J. 18, 255.Google Scholar
  191. Saat, Y.A., Gower, D.B., Harrison, F.A. and Heap, R.B. (1974) Studies on the metabolism of 5α-androst-16-en-3-one in boar testis in vivo. Biochem. J. 144, 347.Google Scholar
  192. Salih, A.M., Smith, D.M., Price, J.F. and Dawson, L.E. (1987) Modified extraction 2-thiobarbituric acid method for measuring lipid oxidation in poultry. Poult. Sci. 66, 1483.Google Scholar
  193. Sanders, T. (1987) Toxicological considerations in oxidative rancidity of animal fats. Food Sci. Technol. Today 1, 162.Google Scholar
  194. Sato, K. and Hegarty, G.R. (1971) Warmed-over flavor in cooked meats. J. Food Sci. 36, 1098.Google Scholar
  195. Schanbacher, B.D. and Lunstra, D.D. (1976) Seasonal changes in sexual activity and serum level of LH in Finnish Landrace and Suffolk rams. J. Anim. Sci. 43, 644.Google Scholar
  196. Schwartz, D.P., Haller, H.S. and Keeney, M. (1963) Direct quantitative isolation of monocarbonyl compounds from fats and oils. Anal. Chem. 35, 2191.Google Scholar
  197. Scott, T.W., Cook, L.J. and Mills, S.C. (1971) Protection of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids against microbial hydrogenation in ruminants. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 48, 358.Google Scholar
  198. Schroeder, J.W., Cramer, D.A., Bowling, R.A. and Cook, C.W. (1980) Palatability, shelf-life and chemical differences between forage- and grain-finished beef. J. Anim. Sci. 50, 852.Google Scholar
  199. Self, H.L. (1957) The problem of boar odor. Proc. Amer. Meat Inst. Found. Res. Conf. 9, 53.Google Scholar
  200. Shahidi, F., Yun, J., Rubin, L.J. and Wood, D.F. (1987) The hexanal content as an indicator of oxidative stability and flavour acceptability in cooked ground pork. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 20, 104.Google Scholar
  201. Shenoy, E.V.B., Daniel, M.J. and Box, G.P. (1982) The boar taint steroid 5α-androst-16-en-3-one: An immunization trial. Acta Endocrinol. 100, 131.Google Scholar
  202. Shewan, J.M., Hobbs, G. and Hodgkiss, W.J. (1960) The Pseudomonas and Achromobacter groups of bacteria in the spoilage of marine whitefish. Appl. Bacteriol. 23, 463.Google Scholar
  203. Shipton, J., Last, J.H., Murray, K.E. and Vale, G.L. (1970) Studies on a kerosene-like taint in mullet (Mugil cephalus). 2. Chemical nature of the volatile constituents. J. Sci. Food Agric. 21, 433.Google Scholar
  204. Shorland, F.B., Igene, J.O., Pearson, A.M., Thomas, J.W., McGriffey, R.K. and Aldridge, A.E. (1981) Effects of dietary fat and vitamin E on the lipid composition and stability of veal during frozen storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29, 863.Google Scholar
  205. Shumway, D.L. and Palensk, J.R. (1973) Impairment of the flavor of fish by water pollutants. EPA-R3–73-016. Office of Research Monitoring. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  206. Sink, J.D. (1967) Theoretical aspects of sex odour in swine. J. Theoret. Biol. 17, 174.Google Scholar
  207. Sinnhuber, R.O. and Yu, T.C. (1958) Characterization of the red pigment formed in the 2-thiobarbituric acid determinator of oxidative rancidity. Food Res. 23, 626.Google Scholar
  208. Sipos, J.C. and Ackman, R.G. (1964) Association of dimethyl sulfide with the ‘blackberry’ problem in cod from the Labrador great. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 21, 423.Google Scholar
  209. Skelley, G.C., Kemp, J.D. and Varney, W.Y. (1964) Quick aging of hams. J. Anim. Sci. 23, 633.Google Scholar
  210. Slabyj, B.M. and Hultin, H.O. (1984) Emulsion of a peroxidizing microsomal fraction from herring muscle. J. Food Sci. 49, 1329.Google Scholar
  211. Smith, G.C., Savell, J.W., Cross, H.R. and Carpenter, Z.L. (1983) The relationship of USDA quality grade to beef flavor. Food Technol. 37(5), 233.Google Scholar
  212. St. Angelo, A.J., Vercelloti, J.R., Legendre, M.G., Vinnett, C.H., Kuan, J.W., James, C., Jr. and Dupuy, H.P. (1987) Chemical and instrumental analyses of warmed-over flavor in beef. J. Food Sci. 52, 1163.Google Scholar
  213. St. Angelo, A.J., Crippen, K.L., Dupuy, H.P. and James, C., Jr. (1990) Chemical and sensory studies of antioxidant-treated beef. J. Food Sci. 55, 1501.Google Scholar
  214. Stansby, M.E. (1962) Speculations on fishy odors and flavors. Food Technol. 16, 28.Google Scholar
  215. Stoick, S., Gray, J.I., Booren, A.M. and Buckley, D.J. (1991) The oxidative stability of restructured beef steaks processed with an oleoresin rosemary, tertiary butyl hydroquinone and sodium tripolyphosphate. J. Food Sci. 56, 597.Google Scholar
  216. Tappel, A.L. (1962) Hematin compounds and lipoxidase, as biocatalysts, in Symposium on Foods: Lipids and their Oxidation (eds H.N. Schultz, E.A. Day and R.O. Sinnhuber), AVI Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, pp. 122–38.Google Scholar
  217. Tarladgis, B.G., Watts, B.M., Younathan, M.T. and Dugan, L.R., Jr. (1960) A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 37, 44.Google Scholar
  218. Tarladgis, B.G., Pearson, A.M. and Dugan, L.R., Jr. (1964) Chemistry of the 2-thio-barbituric acid test for the determination of oxidative rancidity in foods. II. Formation of the TBA-malonaldehyde complex without acid-heat treatment. J. Sci. Food Agric. 15, 602.Google Scholar
  219. Tatum, J.D., Smith, G.C., Berry, B.W., Murphey, C.E., Williams, F.L. and Carpenter, Z.L. (1980) Carcass characteristics, time on feed and cooked beef palatability attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 50, 833.Google Scholar
  220. Thaysen, A.C. (1936) The origin of an earthy muddy taint in fish. 1. The nature and isolation of the taint. Annals Appl. Biol. 23, 99.Google Scholar
  221. Thaysen, A.C. and Pentelow, F.T.K. (1936) The origin of an earthy muddy taint in fish. 2. The effect on fish of the taint produced by an odoriferous species of Actinomyces. Annals Appl. Biol. 22, 105.Google Scholar
  222. Thompson, R.H., Jr. and Pearson, A.M. (1977) Quantitative determination of 5α-androst-16-en-3-one by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its relationship to sex odor intensity in pork. J. Agric. Food Chem. 25, 1241.Google Scholar
  223. Thompson, R.H., Jr. and Pearson, A.M. (1982) Synthesis of deuterium labelled C1916- steroids. J. Labelled Compd. Radiopharmacol. 19, 47.Google Scholar
  224. Thompson, R.H., Jr., Pearson, A.M. and Banks, K.A. (1972) Identification of some C1916-steroids contributing to sex odor in pork. J. Agric. Food Chem. 20, 185.Google Scholar
  225. Tichivangana, J.Z. and Morrissey, P.A. (1985) Metmyoglobin and inorganic metals as prooxidants in raw and cooked muscle systems. Meat Sci. 15, 107.Google Scholar
  226. Tims, M.J. and Watts, B.M. (1958) Protection of cooked meats with phosphates. Food Technol. 12, 240.Google Scholar
  227. USD A (1968) Meat inspection disposition of swine carcasses with sexual odor. Fed. Reg. 33, 10577.Google Scholar
  228. Urbain, W.M. (1986) Food Irradiation, Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  229. Vale, G.L., Sidhu, G.S., Montgomery, W.A. and Johnson, A.R. (1970) Studies on a kerosene-like taint in mullet (Mugil cephalus). 1. General nature of the taint. J. Sci. Food Agric. 21, 429.Google Scholar
  230. Verma, M.M., Paranjape, V. and Ledward, D.A. (1985) Lipid and haemoprotein oxidation in meat emulsion. Meat Sci. 14, 91.Google Scholar
  231. Ward, D.D. (1985) The TBA assay and lipid oxidation: An overview of the relevant literature. Milchwissenschaft 40, 583.Google Scholar
  232. Wasserman, A.E. and Talley, F. (1968) Organoleptic identification of roasted beef, veal, lamb and pork as affected by fat. J. Food Sci. 33, 219.Google Scholar
  233. Watson, D.W. (1939) Studies of fish spoilage. 4. The bacterial reduction of trimethylamine oxide. J. Fish. Res. Bd (Canada) 4, 252.Google Scholar
  234. Westerling, D.B. and Hedrick, H.B. (1979) Fatty acid composition of bovine lipids as influenced by diet, sex and anatomical location and relationship to sensory characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 48, 1343.Google Scholar
  235. Whang, K., Aberle, E.D., Judge, M.D. and Peng, I.C. (1986) Antioxidative activity of α-tocopherol in cooked and uncooked ground pork. Meat Sci. 17, 235.Google Scholar
  236. Wheeler, J.L., Park, R.J., Spurway, R.A. and Ford, A.L. (1974) Variation in the effects of forage rape on meat flavour in sheep. J. Agric. Sci. (Camb.) 83, 569.Google Scholar
  237. Whitfield, F.B., Mottram, D.S., Brock, S., Puckey, D.J. and Slater, L. (1987) Effect of phospholipid on the formation of volatile heterocyclic compounds in heated aqueous solutions of amino acids and ribose. J. Sci. Food Agric. 42, 261.Google Scholar
  238. Wick, E.L., Yamanishi, T., Wertheimer, L.C., Hoff, J.E., Proctor, B.E. and Goldblith, S.A. (1961) An investigation of some volatile components of irradiated beef. J. Agric. Food Chem. 9, 289.Google Scholar
  239. Wick, E.L., Murray, E., Mizutani, J. and Koshika, M. (1967) Irradiation flavor and volatile components of beef, in Radiation Preservation of Foods. Advances in Chemistry Series, American Chemical Society, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  240. Williams, L.D., Pearson, A.M. and Webb, N.B. (1963) Incidence of sex odor in boars, sows, barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 22, 166.Google Scholar
  241. Williamson, E.D., Patterson, R.L.S., Buxton, E.R., Mitchell, K.G., Partridge, I.G. and Walker, N. (1985) Immunization against 5α-androstenone in boars. Livestock Prod. Sci. 12, 251.Google Scholar
  242. Willson, R.L. (1987) Vitamin, selenium, zinc, and copper interactions in free radical protection against ill-placed iron. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 46, 27.Google Scholar
  243. Witte, V.C., Krause, G.F. and Bailey, M.E. (1970) A new extraction method for determining 2-thiobarbituric acid values of pork and beef during storage. J. Food Sci. 35, 582.Google Scholar
  244. Wong, N.P., Damico, J.N. and Salwin, H. (1967) Investigations of volatile compounds in cod fish by GC and MS. J. Assn. Anal. Chem. 50, 8.Google Scholar
  245. Wong, E., Nixon, L.N. and Johnson, C.B. (1975) Volatile medium chain fatty acids and mutton flavor. Agric. Food Chem. 23, 495.Google Scholar
  246. Younathan, M.T. and Watts, B.M. (1959) Relationship of meat pigments to lipid oxidation. Food Res. 24, 728.Google Scholar
  247. Younathan, M.T. and Watts, B.M. (1960) Oxidation of tissue lipids in cooked pork. Food Res. 25, 538.Google Scholar
  248. Yu, L.W., Latriano, L., Duncan, S., Hartwick, R.A. and Witz, G. (1986) High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the thiobarbituric acid adducts of malonaldehyde and trans,trans-muconaldehyde. Anal. Biochem. 156, 326.Google Scholar
  249. Ziegler, P.T. (1944) The Meat We Eat, Interstate Printers and Publishers, Danville, Illinois.Google Scholar
  250. Zipser, M.W. and Watts, B.M. (1962) A modified 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method for the determination of malonaldehyde in cured meats. Food Technol. 16, 102.Google Scholar
  251. Zipser, M.W., Kwon, T.W. and Watts, B.M. (1964) Oxidative changes in cured and uncured frozen cooked pork. J. Agric. Food Chem. 12, 105.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. I. Gray
  • A. M. Pearson
  • F. J. Monahan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations