Flavours Derived from Fats

  • G. Urbach
  • M. H. Gordon


Fats can have a pronounced effect on the flavour of foods of which they are an ingredient. Several fats, notably milkfat, cocoa butter, olive oil, beef fat and lard can contribute positive flavour notes, depending on minor components and their state of oxidation. Chemical changes can induce off-flavours. Other fats already contain degraded components and must be refined to render them palatable before use. Mixing other ingredients with fats can significantly alter the flavour impression by reason of dilution or the interactive effect of secondary components on aroma impression. The physical state of the food on the palate is also a contributory factor; such variables as viscosity, emulsion characteristics, and the relative migration rates of aroma compounds between fat, water and the air headspace on the palate are all capable of modifying the perceived aroma. It has been proposed that certain minor ingredients of a non-volatile nature can influence the perception of flavour volatiles.

The chemistry of the flavour of milkfat is discussed as also is the influence of certain key factors such as enzymatic action, cooking and method of manufacture. The processing of milkfat to closely related products, such as fractionated milkfat, ghee, etc., can influence flavour. The principal factors affecting the flavour of key non-milkfats are highlighted together with the main degradation processes involved in off-flavour development.

With the current increasing tendency towards more natural foods, consumers may in future develop a taste for the indigenous flavours of certain natural oils such as groundnut or soya, and hence methods for extending the shelf-life of such oils could be of commercial value.


Cocoa Butter Methyl Ketone Ascorbyl Palmitate Cocoa Powder Dimethyl Sulphide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andres, C. (1983) Concentrated natural butter flavor. Food Process. (Chicago), 44 (12), 76.Google Scholar
  2. Anet, E. F. L. J. (1975) Precursors of C-12 lactones in animal products. CSIRO Div. Food Res. Rep. Res., 1974–75, pp. 41–2.Google Scholar
  3. Astrup, H. N. (1980) Relationship between lipase activation and rancid flavour in milk. Meieriposten, 69, 122–4.Google Scholar
  4. Badings, H. T. (1965) The flavour of fresh butter and of butter with cold-storage defects in relation to the presence of 4-cis-heptenal. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 19, 69–72.Google Scholar
  5. Badings, H. T. (1967) Causes of ribes flavor in cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 50, 1347–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badings, H. T. (1970) Cold-storage defects in butter and their relation to the autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 24, 145–256.Google Scholar
  7. Badings, H. T. (1971) (Ed.) Investigations into the H2S-off-flavour in butter. Verslagenreeks, K. Ned. Zuivelbond, (19), 64 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Badings, H. T. & Neeter, R. (1980) Recent advances in the study of aroma compounds of milk and dairy products. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 34, 9–30.Google Scholar
  9. Badings, H. T. & Van Der Pol, J. J. G. (1967) A fast and simple method of determining the H2S-content of pasteurized cream. Misset’s Zuivel, 73, 10–13.Google Scholar
  10. Badings, H. T., Maarse, H., Kleipool, R. J. C., Tas, A. C., Neeter, R. & Ten Noever de Brauw, M. C. (1975) Formation of odorous compounds from hydrogen sulphide and methanethiol, and unsaturated carbonyls. In: Aroma Research, Proc. Int. Symp. Aroma Res., Maarse, H. & Groenen, P. J. (Eds), Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation (PUDOC), Wageningen, pp. 63–73.Google Scholar
  11. Badings, H. T., Maarse, H., Kleipool, R. J. C., Tas, A. C., Neeter, R. & Ten Noever de Brauw, M. C. (1976a) Formation of odorous compounds from hydrogen sulphide and 2-butenal. Z. Lebensm. Unters.-Forsch., 161, 53–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Badings, H.T., Tamminga, S. & Schaap, J. E. (1976b) Production of milk with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. II. Fatty acid composition of milk in relation to the quality of pasteurized milk, butter and cheese. Neth. Milk Dairy J., 30, 118–31.Google Scholar
  13. Barrio, P.-C. A., Gutierrez, F. & Gutierrez, R. (1981) Application of GLC headspace technique to the olive oil atrojado problem I. Grasas y Aceites, 32 (3), 155–61.Google Scholar
  14. Black, R. G. (1976) Oxidative flavour stability of milkfat-vegetable oil blends. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 31, 22–6.Google Scholar
  15. Boldingh, J. & Taylor, R. J. (1962) Trace constituents of butterfat. Nature (London), 194, 909–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brandt, P., Hollstein, E. & Franzke, C. (1973) Pro- and antioxidative effects of phosphatides. Lebensmitt. Ind., 20, 31–3.Google Scholar
  17. Brennand, C. P., Ha, J. K. & Lindsay, R. C. (1989) Aroma properties and thresholds of some branched-chain and other volatile fatty acids occurring in milkfat and meat lipids. J. Sensory Studies, 4, 105–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brewington, C. R., Parks, O. W. & Schwartz, D. P. (1973) Conjugated compounds in cow’s milk. J. Agrie. Food Chem., 21, 38–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brewington, C. R., Parks, O. W. & Schwartz, D. P. (1974) Conjugated compounds in cow’s milk. II. J. Agrie. Food Chem., 22, 293–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruhn, J. C., Franke, A. A. & Goble, G. S. (1976) Factors relating to development of spontaneous oxidized flavor in raw milk. J. Dairy Sci., 59, 828–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Burke, C. E. (1973) Lard flavour concentrate. US Patent 3, 767, 429.Google Scholar
  22. Carrard, G. (1983) New method of preserving food. AAEC Nuel. News (15), 1–4.Google Scholar
  23. Chang, S. S. & May, W. A. (1973) Deep fat fried flavor. US Patent 3 767 427.Google Scholar
  24. Conochie, J. (1953) Indole and skatole in the milk of the ruminant feeding on Lepidium spp. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci., 31, 373–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cook, L. J. & Scott, T. W. (1975) In vivo biogenesis in sheep fed protected lipids. Proc. Aust. Biochem. Soc., 8, 46.Google Scholar
  26. Cort, W. M. (1974) Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, ascorbyl palmitate and ascorbic acid and their mode of action. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 51 (7), 321–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cupakova, M., Palo, V. & Görner, F. (1981) Study of carbonyl compounds in milk fat and its fractions In: Zbornik Prednasok, V Celostatneho Sympozia o Aromatickych Latkach v Pozivztinach, Bratislava, 1981, pp. 68–73.Google Scholar
  28. Day, E. A. & Papaioannou, S. E. (1963) Irradiation-induced changes in milk fat. J. Dairy Sci., 46, 1201–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Day, E. A., Lindsay, R. C. & FORSS, D. A. (1964) Dimethyl sulfide and the flavor of butter. J. Dairy Sci., 47, 197–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dimick, P. S. & Harner, J. L. (1968) Effect of environmental factors on lactone potential in bovine milk fat. J. Dairy Sci., 51, 22–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dimick, P. S. & Walker, H. M. (1968) Effect of environmental factors on monocarbonyl potential in fresh bovine milk fat. J. Dairy Sci., 51, 478–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dimick, P. S., Walker, N. J. & Kinsella, J. E. (1966) Aliphatic delta-lactones: determination in bovine milk from animals on normal and fat-depressing diets. Cereal Sci. Today, 11, 479–80, 502.Google Scholar
  33. Dumont, J.-P. & Adda, J. (1978) Occurrence of sesquiterpenes in mountain cheese volatiles. J. Agrie. Food Chem., 26, 364–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Efthymiou, C. C. & Mattick, J. F. (1964) Development of domestic Feta cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 47, 593–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fedeli, E. (1977) Volatile components of olive oil. Riv. Ital. Sost. Gras., 54, 202–5.Google Scholar
  36. Fedeli, E., Camurati, F., Cortesi, N., Favini, G., Cirio, V. & Vito, G. (1976) Lipids, Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, p. 385.Google Scholar
  37. Feron, R. & Govignon, M. (1961) The relation between free acidity and taste of edible oils. Ann. Falsif. Expert. Chim., 54, 308–14.Google Scholar
  38. Flanagan, V. P., Ferretti, A., Schwartz, D. P. & Ruth, J. M. (1975) Characterization of two steroidal ketones and two isoprenoid alcohols in dairy products. J. Lipid Res., 16, 97–101.Google Scholar
  39. Flath, A. R., Forrey, R. R. & Guadagni, D. G. (1973) Aroma components of olive oil. J. Agric. Food Chem., 21, 948–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Foda, E. A., Hammond, E. G., Reinbold, G. W. & Hotchkiss, D. K. (1974) Role of fat in flavor of Cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 57, 1137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Forss, D. A. (1972) Odor and flavor compounds from lipids. Prog. Chem. Fats Other Lipids, 13, 177–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Forss, D. A. (1979) Mechanisms of formation of aroma compounds in milk and milk products. J. Dairy Res., 46, 691–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Forss, D. A. & Patton, S. (1966) Flavor of Cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 49,89–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Forss, D. A., Dunstone, E. A., Ramshaw, E. H. & Stark, W. (1962) Flavour of cucumbers. J. Food Sci., 27, 90–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Forss, D. A., Stark, W. & Urbach, G. (1967a) Volatile compounds in butter oil. I. Lower boiling compounds. J. Dairy Res., 34, 131–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Forss, D. A., Angelini, P., Bazinet, M. L. & Merritt, C. (1967b) Volatile compounds produced by copper-catalyzed oxidation of butterfat. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 44, 141–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Frankle, E. N. (1980) Lipid oxidation. Prog. Lipid Res., 19, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gill, M. S., Macleod, A. J. & Moreau, M. (1984) Volatile components of cocoa with particular reference to glucosinolate products. Phytochemistry, 23,1937–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Goaring, H. K., Gordon, C. H., Wrenn, T. R., Bitman, J., King, R. L. & Douglas, F. W. (1976) Effect of feeding protected safflower oil on yield, composition, flavour, and oxidative stability of milk. J. Dairy Sci., 59, 416–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gutfinger, T. (1981) Polyphenols in olive oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 58, 966–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gutierrez, R., Nosti Vega, M., Colakoglu, M. & Cabrera, J. (1972) Profile evolution of the aromagrams during the oxidation of olive oils. Grasas y Aceites, 23, 351–8.Google Scholar
  52. Gutierrez, R., Olias, J. M., Gutierrez, F., Cabrera, J. & Barrio, P. (1975) The chromatographic and organoleptic methods in the evaluation of the aromatic characteristics in virgin olive oil. Grasas y aceites, 26, 21–32.Google Scholar
  53. Gutierrez, F., Albi, M. A., Palma, R., Rios, J. J. & Olias, J. M. (1989) Bitter taste of virgin oil: Correlation of sensory evaluation and instrumental HPLC analysis. J. Food Sci., 54 (1), 68–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ha, J. K. & Lindsay, R. C. (1990) Method for the quantitative analysis of volatile free and total branched-chain fatty acids in cheese and milk fat. J. Dairy Sci., 73, 1988–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ha, J. K. & Lindsay, R. C. (1991) Contribution of cow, sheep, and goat milks to characterizing branched-chain fatty acid and phenolic flavors in varietal cheeses. J. Dairy Sci., 74, 3267–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hansen, P. M. T. (1963a) Manufacture of butter powder. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 18, 79–86.Google Scholar
  57. Hansen, P. M. T. (1963b) The baking performance of butter powder. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 18, 86–91.Google Scholar
  58. Harper, W. J. (1959) Chemisty of cheese flavors. J. Dairy Sci., 42, 207–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harwalkar, V. R., Emmons, D. B. & Gilchrist, M. R. (1974) Light-induced oxidation of butter oil. Br. Commun. XIX Int. Dairy Congr, 1E, 236.Google Scholar
  60. Haverkamp Begemann, P. & Koster, J. C. (1964) 4-cis-Heptenal: a cream- flavoured component of butter. Nature (London), 202, 552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hess, E. & Lutz, H. (1972) The affinity of milk for odours. Arch. Lebensmittelhyg., 23, 224–5.Google Scholar
  62. Hilditch, T. P. & Williams, P. N. (1964) The Chemical Constitution of Natural Fats, 4th edn, Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  63. Hill, F. D. & Hammond, E. G. (1965) Studies on the flavor of autoxidized soybean oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 42, 1148–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hill, R. D. (1979) Oxidative enzymes and oxidative processes in milk. CSIRO Food Res. Q., 39, 33–7.Google Scholar
  65. Honkanen, E., Karvonen, P. & Virtanen, A. I. (1964) Studies on the transfer of some flavour compounds to milk. Acta Chem. Scand., 18, 612–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Honkanen, E., Moisio, T., Karvonen, P., Virtanen, A. J. & Paasivirta, J. (1968) On the occurrence of a new lactone compound, trans-4-methyl-5-hydroxy-hexanoic acid lactone in milk. Acta Chem. Scand., 22, 2041–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Honkanen, E., Moisio, T., Karvonen, P. & Virtanen, A. I. (1970) Comparative studies on the flavour compounds of milk produced with urea and normal feeding. Suom. Kemistil. B, 43, 1–3.Google Scholar
  68. Hoskin, J. C. & Dimick, P. S. (1988) Chemistry of flavour development. In: Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use, Beckett, S. T. (Ed.), Blackie, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  69. Huang, H. T. & Dooley, J. G. (1976) Enhancement of cheese flavors with microbial esterases. Biotechnol. Bioengng, 18, 909–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Huang, J. J., Shyu, S. L. & Chang, R. L. (1988) Effect of roasting on the quality of groundnut oil. J. Chin. Agric. Chem. Soc., 26 (4), 466–75.Google Scholar
  71. Ishikawa, Y., Sugiyama, K. & Nakabayashi, K. (1984) Stabilisation of tocopherol by three components synergism involving tocopherol, phospholipid and amino compound. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 61 (5), 950–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ivanov, S. A. & Stamatov, S. D. (1975) The γ-irradiation-induced degree of oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization of sunflower oil, lard and butter. Seifen, Oele, Fette, Wachse, 101, 589–92.Google Scholar
  73. Jurriens, G. & Oele, J. M. (1965) Determination of hydroxy-acid triglycerides and lactones in butter. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 42, 857–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kami, T. (1983) Composition of the essential oil of alfalfa. J. Agric. Food Chem., 31, 38–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kaneko, H. & Mita, M. (1969) Isolation from cigar tobacco leaves of 2,3-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid lactone. Agric. Biol. Chem., 33, 1525–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kawada, T., Krishnamurthy, R. G., Mookherjee, B. D. & Chang, S. S. (1967) Chemical reactions involved in the deep fat frying of foods. II. Identification of acidic volatile decomposition products of corn oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 44, 131–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Keen, A. R. (1986) Future developments for profitable dairy farming: the colour and flavour of dairy products. Dairyfarming Ann., 1986, 36–9.Google Scholar
  78. Keenan, T. W., Bills, D. D. & Lindsay, R. C. (1967) Dehydrogenase activity of Pseudomonas species. Appl. Microbiol., 15, 1216–18.Google Scholar
  79. Kellard, B., Busfield, D. M. & Kinderlerer, J. L. (1985) Volatile off-flavour compounds in desiccated coconut. J. Sci. Food Agric., 36, 415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kikoman Syoyu Co. LTD (1971) Butter-like taste enrichment—using 2-en-5-ol-1-carboxylic-acid lactone. Jpn Patent 71041183.Google Scholar
  81. Kilara, A. (1985) Enzyme-modified lipid food ingredients. Process Biochem., 20, 35–44.Google Scholar
  82. Kindelerer, J. L. & Kellard, B. (1984) Ketonic rancidity in coconut due to xerophilic fungi. Phytochemistry, 23 (12), 2847–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kinsella, J. E. (1969) The flavour chemistry of milk lipids. Chem. Ind. (London), (2) 36–42.Google Scholar
  84. Kinsella, J. E. & Hwang, D. H. (1976) Enzymes of Penicillium roqueforti involved in the biosynthesis of cheese flavor. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 8, 191–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kintner, J. A. & Day, E. A. (1965) Major free fatty acids in milk. J. Dairy Sci., 48, 1575–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kochhar, S. P. & Rossell, J. B. (1989) Leatherhead Food Research Association Report No. 412.Google Scholar
  87. Kotova, O. G., Zhilov, V. N., Zhukov, P. I., Makarova, V. T., Tikhova, N. T. & Kabanov, N. YA. (1973) Characteristics and keeping quality of butters made from milk of different breeds. In: Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologicheskikh protses-sov v molochnoipromyshlennosti. Tom I Chast’ I. Leningradskii Tekhnologiches-kii Institut Kholodil’noi Promyshlennosti, pp. 94–6.Google Scholar
  88. Kristensen, J. M. B. & Jensen, S. G. (1975) Investigations into the effect of hereditary factors on the occurrence of oxidized flavour in milk from different breeds of cow. Maelkeritidende, 88, 168–71.Google Scholar
  89. Kurtz, F. E. (1974) The lipids of milk: composition and properties. In: Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry, Webb, B. H., Johnson, A. H. & Alford, J. A. (Eds), 2nd edn, AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CN, pp. 125–219.Google Scholar
  90. Labuschagne, J. H. (1975) Identification and determination of off-flavour compounds in butter. S. Afn. J. Dairy Technol., 7, 229–33.Google Scholar
  91. Lawrence, R. C. (1967) The possible role of milk fat in the formation of Cheddar cheese flavour. N. Z. J. Dairy Technol., 2, 55–7.Google Scholar
  92. Lea, C. H. (1952) Methods for determining peroxides in lipids. J. Sci. Food Agric., 3, 586–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lindsay, R. C., Day, E. A. & Sather, L. A. (1967) Preparation and evaluation of butter culture flavor concentrates. J. Dairy Sci., 50, 25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lotte, K. K. (1982) Production of ice cream having improved taste—with addition of cyclodextrin to butter and butter oil. Jpn Patent 82046348.Google Scholar
  95. Maga, J. A. (1976) Lactones in foods. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 8, 1–56.Google Scholar
  96. Maniere, H. Y. & Dimick, P. S. (1979) Effects of conching on the flavour and volatile components of dark semi-sweet chocolate. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 12, 102–7.Google Scholar
  97. Marth, E. H. (1974) Fermentations. In: Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry, Webb, B. H., Johnson, A. H. & Alford, J. A. (Eds), 2nd edn, AVI Publ. Co., Westport, CN, p. 819.Google Scholar
  98. May, W. A. (1972) Identification of the decomposition products produced by triolein under simulated deep fat frying conditions and a preliminary study of sensory characteristics and physiological effects of unsaturated lactones. Thesis, Rutgers University. Diss. Abstr. Int. B., 32, 5240.Google Scholar
  99. May, W. A., Peterson, R. J. & Chang, S. S. (1978) Synthesis of some unsaturated lactones and their relationship to deep-fat fried flavor. J. Food Sci., 43, 1248–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mcdaniel, M. R., Sather, L. A. & Lindsay, R. C. (1969) Influence of free fatty acid on sweet cream butter flavor. J. Food Sci., 34, 251–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mcgookin, B. J. (1991) Casein-sugar reaction products as anti-oxidants. CSIRO Food Research Quarterly, 51, 55–9.Google Scholar
  102. Mcgookin, B. J. & Augustin, M.-A. (1991) Antioxidant activity of casein and Maillard reaction products from casein-sugar mixtures. J. Dairy Res., 58, 313–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mcneill, G. P., O’Donoghue, A. & Connolly, J. F. (1986) Quantification and identification of flavour components leading to lipolytic rancidity in stored butter. Ir. J. Food Sci. Technol., 10, 1–10.Google Scholar
  104. Merritt, C., Forss, D. A., Angelini, P. & Bazinet, M. L. (1967) Volatile compounds produced by irradiation of butterfat. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 44,144–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Mick, S., Mick, W. & Schreier, P. (1982) The composition of neutral volatile constituents of sour cream butter. Milchwissenschaft, 37, 661–5.Google Scholar
  106. Moinas, M., Groux, M. & Horman, I. (1973) Flavour of cheese. I. New method for isolation of volatile constituents. Application to Roquefort and Camembert. Lait, 53, 601–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Montedoro, G. & Cantarelli, C. (1969) Phenolic constituents of olive oil. Riv. Ital. Sost. Gras., 46, 115–20.Google Scholar
  108. Montedoro, G., Bertuccioli, M. & Anichini, F. (1978) Aroma analysis of virgin olive oil by head space (volatiles) and extraction (polyphenols) techniques. In: Flavour of Foods and Beverages, Charalambous, G. & Inglett, G. E. (Eds), Academic Press, New York, pp. 247–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mosandl, A. & Deger, W. (1987) Stereoisomeric flavour compounds XVII. Chiral carboxylic esters—synthesis and properties. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 185, 379–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mosandl, A. & Gessner, M. (1988) Stereoisomeric flavour substances. XXIII. δ- Lactone flavour compounds—structure and properties of enantiomers. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 187, 401–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nederlands Instituut Voor Zuivelonderzoek (1975) Method for preparing a food product having the flavour of butter made from microbiologically ripened cream. Netherlands Patent Application 7 311 820.Google Scholar
  112. Neimann-Sorensen, A., Nielsen, E. O., Poulsen, P. R. & Jensen, G. K. (1973) Investigations concerning the influence of heritability on the development of oxidized flavour in cow’s milk. Beret. Statens Forsoegsmejeri (199), 42 pp.Google Scholar
  113. Nelson, J. H. (1972) Enzymatically produced flavors for fatty systems. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 49, 559–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ney, K. H. (1985) Cocoa aroma—new α-keto acids in cocoa aroma. Gordian, 88–92.Google Scholar
  115. Nobuhara, A. (1968) Synthesis of unsaturated lactones. I. Some lactones of 5- substituted-5-hydroxy-2-enoic acids as synthetic butter or butter cake flavor. Agric. Biol. Chem., 32, 1016–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Nobuhara, A. (1969a) Synthesis of unsaturated lactones. II. Flavorous nature of some 4- and 5-substituted-5-hydroxy-2-enoic acid lactones. Agric. Biol. Chem., 33, 225–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Nobuhara, A. (1969b) Synthesis of unsaturated lactones. III. Flavorous nature of some δ-lactones having the double bond at various sites. Agric. Biol. Chem., 33, 1264–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Nobuhara, A. (1970) Synthesis of unsaturated lactones. IV. Flavour of some aliphatic γ-lactones. Agric. Biol. Chem., 34, 1745–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Nursten, H. E. (1980) Recent developments in studies of the Maillard reaction. Food Chem., 6, 263–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ohlson, R. (1973) Antioxidant activity of phenols as related to effects of substituent groups. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Metal- Catalysed Lipid Oxidation, Institut des Corps Gras, Paris, pp. 184–92.Google Scholar
  121. Olias, J. M., Cabrera, J. & Gutierrez, R. (1974) Relation between GLC and sensory properties of the aroma of packaged olive oil. Grasas y Aceites, 25,34–41.Google Scholar
  122. Olias, J. M., Del Barrio, A. & Gutierrez, R. (1977) Volatile components in the aroma of virgin olive oil. Grasas y Aceites, 28, 107–12.Google Scholar
  123. Olias, J. M., Dobarganes, C., Gutierrez, F. & Gutierrez, R. (1978) Volatile components in the aroma of virgin olive oil II. Identification and sensorial analysis of the chromatographic eluents. grasas y aceites, 29 (3), 211–18.Google Scholar
  124. Olias, J. M., Gutierrez, F., Dobarganes, M. C. & Gutierrez, R. (1980) Volatile components in the aroma of olive oil IV. Their evolution and influence in the aroma during the fruit ripening process in the Picual and Hojiblanca varieties. Grasas y Aceites, 31. (6), 391–402.Google Scholar
  125. Packer, J. E., Slater, T. F. & Willson, R. L. (1979) Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C. Nature, 278, 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Palm, U., Askari, C., Hener, U., Jakob, E., Mandler, C., Gessner, M., Mosandl, A., König, W. A., Evers, P. & Krebber, R. (1991) Stereoisomeric aroma compounds. XLVII. Direct chirospecific high resolution GC analysis of natural δ-lactones. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 192, 209–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Park, R. J., Armitt, J. D. & Stark, W. (1969) Weed taints in dairy produce. II. Coronopus or land cress taint in milk. J. Dairy Res., 36, 37–46.Google Scholar
  128. Park, R. J., Murray, K. E. & Stanley, G. (1974) 4-Hydroxydodec-cis-6-enoic acid lactone: an important component of lamb flavour from animals fed a lipid- protected dietary supplement. Chem. Ind. (London), 380–2.Google Scholar
  129. Park, R. J., Ford, A. L. & Ratcliff, D. (1976) The influence of two kinds of protected lipid supplement on the flavour of lamb. J. Food Sci., 41, 633–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Parks, O. W., Keeney, M. & Schwartz, D. P. (1961) Bound aldehydes in butteroil. J. dairy sci., 44, 1940–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Patton, S. (1964a) Flavor thresholds of volatile fatty acids. J. Food Sci., 29, 679–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Patton, S. (1964b) Flavor stabilization of milk fat. US Patent 3 127 275.Google Scholar
  133. Paulet, G., Mestres, G. & Cronenberger, L. (1974) Soapy taste in foods: effect of the lipase of white pepper. Rev. Fr. Corps Gras, 21, 611–16.Google Scholar
  134. Pedersen, A. H. (1977) Major challenges to dairying. State Research Dairy involved in the controversy over packaging and re-use. Butter and related products: practical methods of improving butter consistency. Maelkeritidende, 90, 295–6, 298–9, 354–9.Google Scholar
  135. PETERSEN, J. (1986) Improvement of product technology using modified butterfat. Dtsch. Milchwirtsch., 37, 1156.Google Scholar
  136. Petrukhina, E. P. & Piskarev, A. I. (1975) The effect of seasonal conditions in butter manufacture on variations in its quality under cold storage. Kholod. Tekh., (5), 34–7.Google Scholar
  137. Petrukhina, E. P. & Piskarev, A. I. (1976) Study of changes in butter quality at storing in various negative temperatures. Kholod. Tekh., (3), 41–4.Google Scholar
  138. Pokorny, J. (1976) Effect of nonlipidic substances on rancid off flavor of lipids. In: Lipids, 2, Technology, Paoletti, R., Jacini, G. & Porcellati, R. (Eds), Raven Press, New York, pp. 475–80.Google Scholar
  139. Pokorny, J., Poskocilova, H. & Davidek, J. (1981) Effect of phospholipids on the decomposition of hydroperoxides. Nahrung, 25, K29–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ragazzi, E. & Veronese, G. (1973) Phenolic constituents of olive oil. Riv. Ital. Sost. Gras., 50, 443–8.Google Scholar
  141. Ramonas, R. & Berzhinskas, G. (1970) Improving butter quality in continuous butter making. Trudy. Fil. Vses. Nauchno-Issled. Inst. Maslodel. Syrodel’n. Prom, 5, 71–4. Dairy Science Abs. (1971) 33, Abs. No. 2751.Google Scholar
  142. Rangappa, K. S. & Achaya, K. T. (1973) Indian Dairy Products, Asia Publishing House, Bombay.Google Scholar
  143. Rohan, T. A. (1969) The flavour of chocolate, its precursors and a study of their reaction. Gordian, 443–7, 500–1, 542–4, 587–90.Google Scholar
  144. Schaap, J. E., Straatsma, J., Escher, J. T. M. & Badings, H. T. (1986) Extraction of milk fat with supercritical carbon dioxide. In: Milk the Vital Force: Posters Presented at the XXII International Dairy Congress, The Hague, 1986, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Schogt, J. C. M., Havekamp Begemann, P., De Jong, K. & Rademaker-Koster, J. (1967) Butter flavour in food products. British Patent 1 068 712.Google Scholar
  146. Scott, T. W., Bready, P. J., Royal, A. J. & Cook, L. J. (1972) Oil seed supplements for the production of polyunsaturated ruminant milk fat. Search, 3, 170–1.Google Scholar
  147. Selke, E. & Rohwedder, W. K. (1982) Paper presented at AOCS meeting, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  148. Selke, E., Rohwedder, W. K. & Dutton, H. J. (1977) Volatile components from triolein heated in air. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 54, 62–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Selke, E., Rohwedder, W. K. & Dutton, H. J. (1980) Volatile components from trilinolein heated in air. J. Am. Oil Chem Soc., 57, 25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Sevenants, M. R. (1983, 1986) Cream flavor composition for use with buttery flavored food products. US Patent 4 411 924; European Patent 0 074 140 B1.Google Scholar
  151. Siek, T. J. & Lindsay, R. C. (1968) Volatile components of milk fat steam distillates identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. J. Dairy Sci., 51, 1887–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Siek, T. J. & Lindsay, R. C. (1970) Semiquantitative analysis of fresh sweet-cream butter volatiles. J. Dairy Sci., 53, 700–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Siek, T. J., Albin, I. A., Sather, L. A. & Lindsay, R. C. (1969) Taste thresholds of butter volatiles in deodorized butteroil medium. J. Food Sci., 34, 265–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Siek, T. J., Albin, I. A., Sather, L. A. & Lindsay, R. C. (1971) Comparison of flavor thresholds of aliphatic lactones with those of fatty acids, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones. J. Dairy Sci., 54, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Smith, P. W., Parks, O. W. & Schwartz, D. P. (1984) Characterization of male goat odors: 6-trans nonenal. J. Dairy Sci., 67, 794–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Snow, N. S., Buchanan, R. A., Freeman, N. H. & Bready, P. J. (1967a) Manufacturing conditions for butter powder. 1. Powder removal from the drier and fluidized-bed cooler. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 22, 122–5.Google Scholar
  157. Snow, N. S., Townsend, F. R., Bready, P. J. & Shimmin, P. D. (1967b) Manufacturing conditions for butter powder. 2. The effect of manufacturing conditions on baking performance. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 22, 125–34.Google Scholar
  158. Solinas, M., Di Giovacchino, L. & Cucurachi, A. (1975) Phenolic constituents of olive oil. Annali 1st Elaiotec., 5.Google Scholar
  159. Stark, W. & Forss, D. A. (1962) A compound responsible for metallic flavour in dairy products: I. Isolation and identification. J. Dairy Res., 29, 173–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Stark, W. & Forss, D. A. (1964) A compound responsible for mushroom flavour in dairy products. J. Dairy Res., 31, 253–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Stark, W. & Urbach, G. (1974) The level of saturated and unsaturated γ- dodecalactones in the butter fat from cows on various rations. Chem. Ind. (London), 413–14.Google Scholar
  162. Stark, W. & Urbach, G. (1976) The effect of storage of butter at — 10°C on the level of free delta-lactones and free fatty acids in the butterfat. Aust. J. Dairy Technol, 31, 80–2.Google Scholar
  163. Stark, W. & Urbach, G. (1979) CSIRO Div. Food Res. Rep. Res., 1978–1979,113.Google Scholar
  164. Stark, W., Smith, J. F. & Forss, D. A. (1967) n-Pent-l-en-3-ol and n-pent-l-en-3- one in oxidized dairy products. J. Dairy Res., 34, 123–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Stark, W., Urbach, G. & Hamilton, J. S. (1976a) Volatile compounds in butter oil. IV. Quantitative estimation of free fatty acids and free δ-lactones in butter oil by cold-finger molecular distillation. J. Dairy Res., 43, 469–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Stark, W., Urbach, G. & Hamilton, J. S. (1976b) Volatile compounds in butter oil. V. The quantitative estimation of phenol, o-methoxypenol, m- and p-cresols, indole and skatole by cold-finger molecular distillation. J. Dairy Res., 43, 479–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Stark, W., Urbach, G., Cook, L. J. & Ashes, J. R. (1978) The effect of diet on the γ- and δ-lactone and methyl ketone potentials of caprine butterfat. J. Dairy Res., 45, 209–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Sulser, H. & Büchi, W. (1974) Method for producing a roasted-type flavouring. Swiss Patent 555 143.Google Scholar
  169. Suzuki, J. & Bailey, M. E. (1985) Direct sampling capillary GLC analysis of flavor volatiles from ovine fat. J. Agric. Food Chem., 33, 343–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Swern, D. (1964) Composition and characteristics of individual fats and oils. In: Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, Swern, D. (Ed.), 3rd edn, Interscience, New York, pp. 165–247.Google Scholar
  171. Swoboda, P. A. T. & Peers, K. E. (1976) (n-3) Pentaenoic fatty acids in butterfat as precursors of metallic, fishy taint. Chem. Ind. (London), 160–1.Google Scholar
  172. Tai, P. T., Pokorny, J. & Janicek, G. (1974) Non-enzymic browning X. Kinetics of the oxidative browning of phosphatidylethanolamine. Z. Lehensm. Unters. Forsch., 156 (5) 257–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Tharp, B. W. & Patton, S. (1960) Coconut-like flavor defect of milk fat. IV. Demonstration of δ-dodecalactone in the steam distillate from milk fat. J. Dairy Sci., 43, 475–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Thompson, J. A., May, W. A., Paulose, M. M., Peterson, R. J. & Chang, S. S. (1978) Chemical reactions involved in the deep-fat frying of foods. VII. Identification of volatile decomposition products of trilinolein. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 55, 897–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Timms, R. E. (1980) The phase behaviour of mixtures of cocoa butter and milk fat. Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol., 13, 61–5.Google Scholar
  176. Timms, R. E. & Parekh, J. V. (1980) The possibilities for using hydrogenated, fractionated or interesterified milk fat in chocolate. Lebensm.- Wiss. Technol., 13, 177–81.Google Scholar
  177. Townsend, F. R., Snow, N. S., Bready, P. J. & Thompson, H. (1968) Manufacturing conditions for butter powder. 3. Butter powder for domestic cake baking. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 23, 85–9.Google Scholar
  178. Tuynenburg Muys, G., Van Der Ven, B. & De Jonge, A. P. (1962) Synthesis of optically active γ- and δ-lactones by microbiological reduction. Nature (London), 194, 995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Unilever NV (1968) Margarine with a particularly butter-like flavour. Dtsch. Off. Schr. 1 692 540.Google Scholar
  180. Urbach, G. (1979) The flavour of milk fat. In: Proceedings of Milk Fat Symposium, held at Dairy Research Laboratory, Division of Food Research, CSIRO, 10th October, 1979, Australian Society of Dairy Technology, Melbourne, pp. 18–27.Google Scholar
  181. Urbach, G. (1982) The effect of different feeds on the lactone and methyl ketone precursors of milk fat. Lebensm.-Wiss. Technol., 15, 62–7.Google Scholar
  182. Urbach, G. (1990) The effect of feed on flavor in dairy foods. J. Dairy Sci., 73, 3639–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Urbach, G. & Milne, T. (1987) The concentration of volatiles in pasteurized milk as a function of storage time and storage temperature—a possible indicator of keeping quality. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 42, 53–8.Google Scholar
  184. Urbach, G. & Stark, W. (1975) The C-20 hydrocarbons of butterfat. J. Agric. Food Chem., 23, 20–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Urbach, G. & Stark, W. (1978a) Unsaturated tetradecalactones in butterfat. Br. Commun. 20th Int. Dairy Congr., E, 887.Google Scholar
  186. Urbach, G. & Stark, W. (1978b) The effect of diet on the γ- and δ-lactone and methyl ketone potentials of bovine butterfat. J. Dairy Res., 45, 223–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Urbach, G., Stark, W. & Forss, D. A. (1972) Volatile compounds in butter oil. II. Flavour and flavour thresholds of lactones, fatty acids, phenols, indole and skatole in deodorized synthetic butter. J. Dairy Res., 39, 35–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Van der Ven, B. (1964) Detection of γ- and δ-keto acids in butterfat. Rech. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas, 83, 976–82.Google Scholar
  189. Van Der Ven, B., Haverkamp Begemann, P. & Schogt, J. C. M. (1963) Precursors of methyl ketones in butter. J. Lipid Res., 4, 91–5.Google Scholar
  190. Van Der Zijden, A. S. M., de Jong, K., Sloot, D., Clifford, J. & Taylor, R.-J. (1966) Components of butter fat occurring in traces. IV. Isolation and identification of unsaturated aliphatic lactones. Rev. Fr. Corps Gras, 13, 731–5.Google Scholar
  191. Van Niel, C. B., Kluyver, A. J. & Derx, H. G. (1929) The butter aroma. Biochem. Z., 210, 234–51.Google Scholar
  192. Vasquez Roncero, A. (1978) The polyphenols of olive oil and their effect on oil characteristics. Rev. Franc, des Corps Gras, 25, 21–6.Google Scholar
  193. Veringa, H. A., Van Den Berg, G. & Stadhouders, J. (1976) An alternative method for the production of cultured butter. Milchwissenschaft, 31, 658–62.Google Scholar
  194. Vyshemirskii, F. A. & Vasilisin, S. V. (1972) Effect of heat treatment on composition of cream and intensity of pasteurized flavour. Tr., Vses. Nauchno- Issled. Inst. Maslodel. Syrodeln. Promsti (9), 77–102.Google Scholar
  195. Walker, N. J. (1972) Distribution of flavour precursors in fractionated milkfat. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 7, 135–9.Google Scholar
  196. Walker, N. J. & Gray, I. K. (1970) The glucosinolate of land cress (Coronopus didymus) and its enzymic degradation products as precursors of off-flavor in milk—a review. J. Agric. Food Chem., 18, 346–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Walker, N. J. & Keen, A. R. (1976) Lactones in solvent-fractionated milkfat. Ann. Rep., N.Z. Dairy Res. Inst., 1975–76, pp. 36–7.Google Scholar
  198. Walker, N. J., Patton, S. & Dimick, P. S. (1968) Incorporation of [l-14C]acetate into the aliphatic δ-lactones of ruminant milk. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 152,445–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Walker, N. J., Cant, P. A. E. & Keen, A. R. (1977) Lactones in fractionated milkfat and spreadable butter. N.Z. J. Dairy Sci. Technol., 12, 94–100.Google Scholar
  200. Wigan, F. (1951) Judging Milk Products, P. V. Turk Dairy Publications, Sydney.Google Scholar
  201. Wilkinson, R. A. (1964) Theories of the mechanisms of oxidized flavour development in dairy products. csiro div. dairy res. internal rep., No. 4, 39 pp.Google Scholar
  202. Wills, P. A. (1986) Radiation treatment of food. Nucl. Spectrum, 2 (2), 5–10.Google Scholar
  203. Wilson, R. D. (1989) Flavour volatiles from New Zealand milkfat. Paper presented to Fats For the Future II, Auckland, NZ, February 13–17, 1989. Int. Conf. Fats, R. Soc. N.Z., Wellington, NZ.Google Scholar
  204. Winter, M., Stoll, M., Warnhoff, E. W., Greuter, F. & Büchi, G. (1963) Volatile carbonyl constituents of dairy butter. J. Food. Sci., 28, 554–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wyatt, C. J. & Day, E. A. (1965) Evaluation of antioxidants in deodorized and nondeodorized butteroil stored at 30°C. J. Dairy Sci., 48, 682–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Yamaguchi, S. (1979) The umami taste. In: Food Taste Chemistry, Boudreau, J. C. (Ed.), American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (ACS Symp. Ser. no. 115), pp. 33–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Zak, D. L. & Keeney, P. G. (1976) Changes in cocoa protein during ripening of fruit. Fermentation and further processing of cocoa beans. J. Agric. Food Chem., 24, 483–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Ziegleder, G. (1983) New knowledge of cocoa aroma fermentation and its modification through technical processes. Lebensmitt. Gerichtliche Chemie, 37, 63–9.Google Scholar


  1. Arnold, R. G., Shahani, K. M. & Dwivedi, B. K. (1975) Application of lipolytic enzymes to flavor development in dairy products. J. Dairy Sci., 58, 1127–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cupakova, M. (1979) Review of aromatic substances in milk fat. Zbornik Prednasok, IV Celostatnaho Sympozia o Aromatickych Latkach v Pozivatinach, Bratislava, 1979, pp. 68–73.Google Scholar
  3. Day, E. A. (1966) Role of milk lipids in flavors of dairy products. In: Flavor Chemistry, Hornstein, I. (Ed.), American Chemical Society, Washington, DC (Adv. Chem. Ser. No. 56), pp. 94–120.Google Scholar
  4. Deeth, H. C. & Fitz-Gerald, C. H. (1983) Lipolytic enzymes and hydrolytic rancidity in milk and milk products. In: Developments in Dairy Chemistry, —2. Lipids, Fox, P. F. (Ed.), Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 195–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dimick, P. S., Walker, N. J. & Patton, S. (1969) Occurrence and biochemical origin of aliphatic lactones in milk fat—A review. J. Agric. Food Chem., 17, 649–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Forss, D. A. (1969) Flavors of dairy products: A review of recent advances. J. Dairy Sci., 52, 832–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Forss, D. A. (1971) The flavors of dairy fats—A review. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 48, 702–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Iwai, M. (1978) Enzymic production of flavour of milk products. II. Production by lipase. Kagaku To Kogyo (Osaka), 52, 93–9.Google Scholar
  9. Jacobs, M. B. (1946) Diketone components of butter flavors. Am. Perfumer, 48 (11), 59,61,63.Google Scholar
  10. Karg, J. E. (1983) Specific flavour substances for margarine; their occurrence in milk and milk products. Seifen, Oele, Fette, Wachse, 109, 327–30.Google Scholar
  11. Keppler, J. G. (1970) Synthetic flavors for fatty foods. J. Agric. Food Chem., 18, 988–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Keppler, J. G. (1977) Twenty-five years of flavor research in a food industry. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 54, 474–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kinsella, J. E. (1975) butter flavor. Food Technol., 29 (5), 82, 84, 86, 88,90,92,96, 98.Google Scholar
  14. Kinsella, J. E., Patton, S. & Dimick, P. S. (1967) The flavor potential of milk fat. A review of its chemical nature and biochemical origin. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 44, 449–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krukovsky, V. N. (1961) Review of biochemical properties of milk and the lipid deterioration in milk and milk products as influenced by natural varietal factors. J. Agric. Food Chem., 9, 439–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lang, F. & Lang, A. (1977) New developments in butter and in uses of butterfat. Milk Ind., 79, (10), 4–5; (9) 19–20.Google Scholar
  17. Manning, D. J. & Nursten, H. E. (1985) Flavour of milk and milk products. In: Developments in Dairy Chemistry—3. Lactose and Minor Constituents, Fox, P. F. (Ed.), Elsevier Applied Science, London, pp. 217–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Min, B. D. & Smouse, T. H. (Eds) (1985) Flavor Chemistry of Fats and Oils, American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  19. Moncrieff, R. W. (1965) The butter flavour—recent work extends knowledge. Food Process. Mark., 33 (401), 51–4.Google Scholar
  20. Moore, J. H., Downey, W. K., Olivecrona, T., Cogan, T. M., Jellema, A., Fleming, M. G., Kuzdzal-Savoie, S., Connolly, J. F., Murphy, J. J., O’Connor, C. B. & Headon, D. R. (1980) Flavour impairment of milk and milk products due to lipolysis. Bull., Int. Dairy Fed. No. 118, 76 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Morrison, W. R. (1970) Milk lipids. In: Topics in Lipid Chemistry, Vol. 1, Gunstone, F. D. (Ed.), Logos Press, London, pp. 51–106.Google Scholar
  22. Nelson, J. H., Jensen, R. G. & Pitas, R. E. (1977) Pregastric esterase and other oral lipases—a review. J. Dairy Sci., 60, 327–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ramshaw, E. H. (1974) Volatile components of butter and their relevance to its desirable flavour. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 29, 110–15.Google Scholar
  24. Richardson, T. & Korycka-Dahl, M. (1983) Lipid oxidation. In: Developments in Dairy Chemistry—2. Lipids, Fox, P. F. (Ed.), Applied Science Publishers, London, pp. 241–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shipe, W. F., Lee, E. C. & Senyk, G. F. (1975) Enzymatic modification of milk flavor. J. Dairy Sci., 58, 1123–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Supran, M. K. (Ed.) (1978) Lipids as a Source of Flavor, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, (ACS Symp. Ser. No. 75).Google Scholar

Patents Dealing with Cultured-Butter Flavour

  1. Epstein, A. K. & Harris, B. R. (1934) Margarine. US Patent 1,945,347.Google Scholar
  2. Merker, D. R. (1956) Method of imparting a butter-like flavouring to fat- containing food products and the resulting product. US Patent 2,773,772.Google Scholar
  3. Nederlands Instituut Voor Zuivelonderzoek (1960) Method for the flavouring of butter and margarine. Netherlands Patent 93,517.Google Scholar
  4. Poppe, M. (1899) German Patent 128,729.Google Scholar

Patents Dealing with Sweet-Cream-Butter Flavour

  1. Boldingh, J., Begemann, P. H., Lardelli, G., Taylor, R. J. & Weller, W. T. (1956) Improvements in or relating to new chemical compounds. British Patent 748,661.Google Scholar
  2. Firmenich & CO. (1963) French Patent 1,319,516.Google Scholar
  3. Folliet, P. (1963) Process for the preparation of dioxane derivatives. Australian Patent Application 27065/63.Google Scholar
  4. Givaudan & Cie (1975) Novel dioxolane derivatives and their use as flavouring agents. British Patent 1352092.Google Scholar
  5. Hatori, T. & Shinoda, A. (1967) Manufacture of flavouring compounds having the aroma of butter. Japan Patent 22 193/67.Google Scholar
  6. Lamparsky, D. (1975) Method for producing novel flavouring substances. Swiss Patent 557 814.Google Scholar
  7. Naarden Int. NV (1979) Preparation of sweet, buttery flavouring for food—by heating fructose and proline in polar solvent. Netherlands Patent 7712745.Google Scholar
  8. Nakel, G. M. (1967) Flavored fat or oil. US Patent 3,336,138.Google Scholar
  9. Soda Koryo Kk (1983) Perfume composition containing straight chain 5-alkenic acid—giving the product an odour like butter, cheese or milk, used in cosmetics and foodstuffs. Japan Patent 58096014.Google Scholar
  10. Taylor, R. J. & Weller, W. T. (1956) Improvements in or relating to new chemical compounds. British Patent 748801.Google Scholar
  11. Unilever, NV (1965) Potential flavoring compounds. Netherlands Patent Application 6 503 576.Google Scholar
  12. Wode, N. G. & Holm, U. (1959) Process for improving the taste and flavor of margarine and other foods and edible substances. US Patent 2,903,364.Google Scholar
  13. Yamamoto, K. (1976) Method for giving foodstuffs a flavour resembling that of a dairy product—8-nonen-2-one. British Patent 1 423 004.Google Scholar

Sweet-Cream Butter Flavour

  1. Kameoka, H., Maseki, M. & Hirao, N. (1974) The constituents of natural butter flavour and synthesis of δ-alkylvalerolactones. Yukagaku, 23, 400–4.Google Scholar
  2. Kawanishi, G. & Saito, K. (1965) Studies on the volatile compounds of butter. I. Fresh sweet-cream butter. Jpn J. Zootech. Sci., 36, 436–42.Google Scholar
  3. Kawashiro, I., Tanabe, H. & Ishii, A. (1960) Application of gas chromatography for food analysis. I. Fatty acids in butter and cheese. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi, 1, 78–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kuzdzal-Savoie, S. (1968) Unsaponifiable matter of butter. I. Methods. Ann. Technol. Agric., 17, 115–50.Google Scholar
  5. Kuzdzal-Savoie, S., Langlois, D., Trotier, D. & Dzik, B. (1975) Comparative study of some hydrocarbons in butter and modified butters. Ann. Falsif. Expert. Chim., 68, 577–617.Google Scholar
  6. Leesment, H. (1960) Estimation of malt flavour in milk, starters and butter. Sven. Mejeritidn., 52, 181–4.Google Scholar

Cultured-Cream Butter Flavour

  1. Grinene, E. K. (1982) Influence of technological factors on the formation of aromatic properties in cultured butter. Br. Commun. 21st Int. Dairy Congr., Moscow, Vol 1 (bk. 1), p. 328.Google Scholar
  2. Kawanishi, G. & Saito, K. (1965) Studies on the volatile compounds of butter. II. Fresh ripened-cream butter. Jpn J. Zootech. Sci., 36, 443–50.Google Scholar
  3. Kawanishi, G. & Saito, K. (1966) Free amino acids and related compounds in sweet- and ripened-cream butters. Nippon Chikusan Gakkai Ho, 37, 430–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kiermeier, F. & Renner, E. (1962) Effect of silage on the quality of butter. Milchwissenschaft, 17, 495–8.Google Scholar

Action of Enzymes on Milkfat

  1. Kanisawa, T. (1983) Production of flavours by biochemical methods. II. Production of ethyl ester mixture from butterfat by Candida cylindracea lipase. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 30, 572–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kanisawa, T., Yamaguchi, Y. & Hattori, S. (1982) Production of flavours by biochemical methods. I. Production of dairy flavours by microbial lipase. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 29, 693–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kihara, K. & Shiromoto, T. (1982) Method for making a butter flavour. Japan Patent 57 41 898 83.Google Scholar
  4. Shimamoto, S. & Kuroki (1974) Butter flavours. Japan Patent 4 922 696.Google Scholar
  5. Tanabe Seiyaku Co. Ltd (1970) Butter flavour. Japan Patent 3 187/70.Google Scholar


  1. Abd El-Salam, M. H., Osman, Y. M., Fahmi, A. H. & Sharara, H. A. (1973) The flavour compounds in samn. II. Effect of processing on the monocarbonyl contents of samn. Milchwissenschaft, 28, 338–40.Google Scholar
  2. Fahmi, A. H., Sharara, H. A., Osman, Y. M. & Abd El-Salam, M. H. (1973) The flavour compounds in samn. I. Isolation and characterization. Milchwissenschaft, 28, 223–5.Google Scholar
  3. Gaba, K. L. & Jain, M. K. (1973) A note on the flavour changes in ghee on storage: their sensory and chemical assessment. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 43, 67–70.Google Scholar
  4. Gaba, K. L. & Jain, M. K. (1975) Organoleptic and chemical evaluation of flavour changes during storage of ghee prepared from fresh and ripened desi butters. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 28, 278–88.Google Scholar
  5. Gaba, K. L. & Jain, M. K. (1976) A comparative appraisal of the total carbonyls in fresh and stored desi ghee. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 27, 81–9.Google Scholar
  6. Gaba, K. L. & Jain, M. K. (1976) Head-space carbonyls in fresh and stored desi ghee. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 29, 1–6.Google Scholar
  7. Gaba, K. L. & Jain, M. K. (1976) Carbonylic flavour profiles of butter oil and ghee and attempts to simulate ghee flavour in butter oil. Milchwissenschaft, 31, 32–4.Google Scholar
  8. Latif, A., Salib, A. & Khalil, F. (1973) Some chemical studies on the odour of samn. II. Physical and chemical characterization of the odour of samn. Egypt. J. Food Sci., 1, 119–36.Google Scholar
  9. Wadhwa, B. K. & Jain, M. K. (1985) Simulation of ghee flavour in butter oil with synthetic flavouring compounds. J. Food Sci. Technol., 22, 24–7.Google Scholar
  10. Wadhwa, B., Bindal, M. P. & Jain, M. K. (1977) Simulation of ghee flavour in butter oil. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 30, 314–18.Google Scholar
  11. Wadhwa, B., Bindal, M. P. & Jain, M. K. (1978) Lactone flavour components of ghee. Br. Commun., XX Int. Dairy Congr., E, 890–1.Google Scholar
  12. Wadhwa, B., Bindal, M. P. & Jain, M. K. (1979) A comparative study of the keeping quality of butter oil, flavour induced butter oil and ghee. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 32, 227–30.Google Scholar
  13. Wadhwa, B., Bindal, M. P. & Jain, M. K. (1979) Isolation, fractionation and characterization of lactonic components of cow ghee. Milchwissenschaft, 34, 481–3.Google Scholar
  14. Wadhwa, B., Bindal, M. P. & Jain, M. K. (1980) Variations in lactone profiles of ghee prepared from milks of different species. Milchwissenschaft, 35, 355.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Urbach
    • 1
  • M. H. Gordon
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Food Science and TechnologyCSIROAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyUniversity of ReadingUK

Personalised recommendations