Bulgaria is in the seismically active region around the Mediterranean Sea and the Carpathian Mountains, where the tectonics create a strong seismic effect. Severe earthquakes have occurred frequently in the territory of Bulgaria. One of the oldest historic records (first century b.c.) describes how earthquakes destroyed the town of Kavarna and devastated all its surrounding villages. Seismologists have estimated the intensity of this earthquake to be about X on the MSK scale, which is similar to the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) scale. In the month of September a.d543, an earthquake with the intensity of about IX occurred near the town of Balchik; the sea flooded the land producing further devastation throughout the region. In November 1444, a chronicler wrote that in the Balchik region, “The towns completely collapsed, rivers changed their course” (Rijikova 1981).
KeywordsClay Europe Transportation Silt Gravel
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