Survey Measurement Adjustments by Least Squares
The general subject of errors in measurement was discussed in Chapter 3, and the two classes of errors, systematic and random (or accidental), were defined. It was noted that systematic errors follow physical laws, and that if the conditions producing them are measured, corrections to eliminate these can be computed and applied; however, random errors will still exist in all observed values.
KeywordsCovariance Azimuth Dinates calA
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Hirvonen, R. A. 1965. Adjustment by Least Squares in Geodesy and Photogrammetry. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Leick, A. 1990. GPS Satellite Surveying. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
- Mikhail, E. M. 1976. Observations and Least Squares. New York: Dun-Donnelly.Google Scholar
- Mikhail, E. M., and G. Gracie. 1981. Analysis and Adjustment of Survey Measurements. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
- Wolf, P. R. 1980. Adjustment Computations: Practical Least Squares for Surveyors, 2nd ed. Rancho Cordova, CA: Landmark Enterprises.Google Scholar