Survey Measurement Adjustments by Least Squares

  • Paul R. Wolf
  • Charles Ghilani

Abstract

The general subject of errors in measurement was discussed in Chapter 3, and the two classes of errors, systematic and random (or accidental), were defined. It was noted that systematic errors follow physical laws, and that if the conditions producing them are measured, corrections to eliminate these can be computed and applied; however, random errors will still exist in all observed values.

Keywords

Covariance Azimuth Dinates calA 

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References

  1. Hirvonen, R. A. 1965. Adjustment by Least Squares in Geodesy and Photogrammetry. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company.Google Scholar
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  3. Mikhail, E. M. 1976. Observations and Least Squares. New York: Dun-Donnelly.Google Scholar
  4. Mikhail, E. M., and G. Gracie. 1981. Analysis and Adjustment of Survey Measurements. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
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  6. Wolf, P. R. 1980. Adjustment Computations: Practical Least Squares for Surveyors, 2nd ed. Rancho Cordova, CA: Landmark Enterprises.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul R. Wolf
  • Charles Ghilani

There are no affiliations available

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