Survey Measurement Adjustments by Least Squares

  • Paul R. Wolf
  • Charles Ghilani


The general subject of errors in measurement was discussed in Chapter 3, and the two classes of errors, systematic and random (or accidental), were defined. It was noted that systematic errors follow physical laws, and that if the conditions producing them are measured, corrections to eliminate these can be computed and applied; however, random errors will still exist in all observed values.


Covariance Azimuth Dinates calA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul R. Wolf
  • Charles Ghilani

There are no affiliations available

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