Process Modeling and Simulation

  • Arthur A. Teixeira
  • Charles F. Shoemaker

Abstract

A process model is a mathematical representation of a process in the form of an expression that correctly relates how the various product and process variables can affect the process outcome. Many food processes involve complex biochemical reactions, which are functions of time, temperature, and concentration under conditions of heat and mass transfer that are governed by various process and product conditions. The development of such models requires the expertise of food engineers who have extensive training in engineering science and mathematics in addition to basic food science.

Keywords

Sugar Fermentation Convection Petroleum Sludge 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ARCE, J. A., POTLURI, P. L., SCHNEIDER, K. C., SWEAT, V. E., and DUTSON, T. R. 1983. Modeling beef carcass cooling using a finite element technique. Transactions of the ASAE 26(3): 950.Google Scholar
  2. ARMIZER, W. B. 1979. Computer Applications in Fermentation Technology. John Wilev &Sons New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. ASSOCIATION OF VITAMIN CHEMISTS. 1951. Methods of Vitamin Assay. Inter-science, New York.Google Scholar
  4. BALL, C. O. 1938. Advancement in sterilization methods for canned foods. Food Research 13(3): 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. BALL, C. O., and OLSON, F. C. W. 1957. Sterilization in Food Technology. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  6. BARRETT, J. R., OKOS, M. R., and STEVENS, J. B. 1981. Simulation of low temperature wheat drying. Transactions of the ASAE 24(4): 1042–1046.Google Scholar
  7. BERTIN, R., PIERRONNE, F., and COMBARNOUS, M. 1980. Modeling and simulating a distributed parameter tunnel drier. Journal of Food Science 45: 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BLOORE, C. G., and BOAG, I. F. 1982. A simulation model of a tall-form spray drier. New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology 17(2): 121–134.Google Scholar
  9. BONACINA, C., and COMINI, G. 1973. On a numerical method for the solution of the unsteady state conduction equation with temperature dependent parameters. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Refrigeration 2: 329.Google Scholar
  10. BONACINA, C., COMINI, G., FASANO, A., and PRIMICERIO, M. 1973. Numerical solutions of phase change problems. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 16: 1825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. BONACINA, C., COMINI, G., FASANO, A., and PRIMICERIO, M. 1974. On the estimation of thermal physical properties in nonlinear heat conduction problems. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 17: 861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CHEN, C. S., CARTER, R. D., MILLER, W. M., and WHEATON, T. A. 1980. Energy performance of a HTST citrus evaporator under digital computer control. ASAE Paper No. 80-6028. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  13. CLELAND, A. C., and EARLE, R. L. 1982. Freezing time prediction for foods-a simplified procedure. International Journal of Refrigeration 5(3): 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DROWN, D. C., and PETERSEN, J. N. 1983. Application of flowsheeting in the food process industry. ASAE Paper No. 83-6523. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  15. EDWARDS, L., and BALDUS, R. 1979. GEMS-User’s Manual. University of Idaho,Moscow, ID.Google Scholar
  16. FELUCIOTTI, E., and ESSELEN, W. B. 1957. Thermal destruction rates of thiamine in pureed meats and vegetables. Food Technology 11(2): 77–84.Google Scholar
  17. FRÄSER, B. M., and MUIR, W. E. 1981. Airflow requirements predicted for drying grain with ambient and solar-heated air in Canada. Transactions of the ASAE 24(1): 208–210.Google Scholar
  18. HAYAKAWA, K. I. 1964. Development of formulas for calculating the theoretical temperature history and sterilizing value in a cylindrical can of thermally conductive food during heat processing. Ph.D. dissertation, Rutgers, the State University, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  19. HAYAKAWA, K. I. 1969. New parameters for calculating mass average sterilizing value to estimate nutrients in thermally conductive food. Canadian Institute of Food Technologists 2(4): 165.Google Scholar
  20. HELDMAN, D. R. 1974. Computer simulation of food freezing processes. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Food Science and Technology 4: 397.Google Scholar
  21. HELDMAN, D. R. 1982. Food properties during freezing. Food Technology 36(2): 92.Google Scholar
  22. HELDMAN, D. R. 1983. Factors influencing food freezing rates. Food Technology 37(4): 103–109.Google Scholar
  23. HELDMAN, D. R., and GORBY, D. P. 1975a. Prediction of thermal conductivity in food. Transactions of the ASAE 18(1): 740.Google Scholar
  24. HELDMAN, D. R., and GORBY, D. P. 1975b. Computer simulation of individualquick-freezing of foods. ASAE Paper No. 75-6016. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  25. HOHNER, G. A., and HELDMAN, D. R. 1970. Computer simulation of freezing rates in foods. Presented at 30th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Food Technologists, 24–27 May, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  26. HOLDREDGE, R. M., and WYSE, R. E. 1982. Computer simulation of the forced convection cooling of sugar beets. Transactions of the ASAE 25(5): 1425.Google Scholar
  27. HSIEH, R. C., LEREW, L. E., and HELDMAN, D. R. 1977. Prediction of freezing times for foods as influenced by product properties. Journal of Food Processing Engineering 1: 183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. JEN, Y. Y., MANSON, J. E., STUMBO, C. R., and ZAHRADNIK, J. W. 1971. A simple method for estimating sterilization and nutrient and organoleptic factor degradation in thermally processed foods. Journal of Food Science 36: 692.Google Scholar
  29. LIMA HON, V. M., CHEN, C. S., and MARSAIOLI, A. Jr. 1979. Computer simulation of dynamic behavior in vacuum evaporation of tomato paste. Transactions of the ASAE 22(1): 215.Google Scholar
  30. MEIERING, A. G., and SUBDEN, R. E. 1983. Fermentation control by microcomputers. ASAE Paper No. 83–6534. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  31. NAGAOKA, J., TAKAGI, S., and HOTANI, S. 1955. Experiments on the freezing of fish in an air-blast freezer. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress of Refrigeration, Paris 2:4.Google Scholar
  32. NAVEH, D., KOPELMAN, I. J., and PFLUG, I. J. 1983. The finite element method in thermal processing foods. Journal of Food Science 48: 1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. NEELAKANTAN, P. S., and MUKESH, D. 1979. Computer model of a continuous evaporative crystallizer. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Process Design and Development 18: 56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. PISIPATI, R., and FRICKE, A. L. 1979. Computer simulation of a single screw cooking extruder. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Engineering and Food (Helsinki), and International Union of Food Science &Technology.Google Scholar
  35. PURWADARIA, H. K., and HELDMAN, D. R. 1982. A finite element model for prediction of freezing rates in food products with anomalous shapes. Transactions of the ASAE 25(3): 827.Google Scholar
  36. RADOVIC, L. R., TASIC, A. Z., GROZDANIC, D. K., DJORDJEVIC, B. D., and VALENT, V. J. 1979. Computer design and operation of a multiple-effect evaporator system in the sugar industry. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Process Design and Development 18: 318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. SABBAH, M. A., MEYER, G. E., KEENER, H. M., and ROLLER, W. L. 1979. Simulation studies of reversed-direction-air-flow drying method for soybean seed in a fixed bed. Transactions of the ASAE 22(5): 1162–1166.Google Scholar
  38. SAGUY, I., KOPELMAN, I. J., and MIZRAHI, S. 1978a. Thermal kinetic degradation of betanine and betalanic acid. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26(2): 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. SAGUY, I., KOPELMAN, I. J., and MIZRAHI, S. 1978b. Computer-aided determination of beet pigments. Journal of Food Science 43: 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. SAGUY, I., KOPELMAN, I. J., and MIZRAHI, S. 1980. Computer-aided prediction of beet pigment (betanine and vulgaxanthin-I) retention during air-drying. Journal of Food Science 45: 230–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. STUMBO, C. R. 1965. Thermobacteriology in Food Processing. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  42. TEIXEIRA, A. A. 1971. Thermal process optimization through computer simulation of variable boundary control and container geometry. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  43. TEIXEIRA, A. A. 1978. Conduction-heating considerations in thermal processing of canned foods. Paper No. 78-WA/HT-55, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, United Engineering Center, New York.Google Scholar
  44. TEIXEIRA, A. A., DIXON, J. R., ZAHRADNIK, J. W., and ZINSMEISTER, G. E.1969a. Computer optimization of nutrient retention in the thermal processing of conduction-heated foods. Food Technology 23(6): 137.Google Scholar
  45. TEIXEIRA, A. A, DIXON, J. R, ZAHRADNIK, J. W., and ZINSMEISTER, G. E.1969b. Computer determination of spore survival distributions in thermally processed conduction-heated foods. Food Technology 23(3): 78.Google Scholar
  46. TEIXEIRA, A. A., STUMBO, C. R., and ZAHRADNIK, J. W. 1975a. Experimental evaluation of mathematical and computer models for thermal process evaluation. Journal of Food Science 40: 653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. TEIXEIRA, A. A., ZINSMEISTER, G. E., and ZAHRADNIK, J. W. 1975b. Computer simulation of variable retort control and container geometry as possible means for improving thiamine retention in thermally processed foods. Journal of Food Science 40: 656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. THOMPSON, J. E., KRANZLER, G. A., and STONE, M. L. 1982. Microcomputer control for hop drying. ASAE Paper No. 82–5520. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  49. TROEGER, J. M., and BUTLER, J. L. 1979. Simulation of solar peanut drying. Transactions of the ASAE 22(4): 906.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arthur A. Teixeira
    • 1
  • Charles F. Shoemaker
    • 2
  1. 1.University of FloridaUSA
  2. 2.University of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations