Quantum Fluctuations and Superconductivity

  • R. Fazio
  • A. Tagliacozzo
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 347)

Abstract

Soon after Kamerlingh Omnes succeded in liquifying helium, he discovered (1911) that resistance in samples of mercury dropped suddently to zero below the critical temperature of 4.15 °K. Since then, it was readly realized that superconductivity is a quite common feature of metals with some exceptions. Twentytwo years later it was found that in applying a magnetic field to a superconducting sample, below some critical value, the magnetic flux is excluded from its bulk (Meissner effect) [1, 2, 3].

Keywords

Vortex Mercury Helium Coherence Omnes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    M.Tinkham, Introduction to superconductivity, (McGraw - Hill Inc. , New York , 1975)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Percolation, Localization and Superconductivity, A.M. Goldman and S.A. Wolf Eds.NATO ASI Series B, vol.109 (Plenum Press, New York 1984)Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Single Charge tunneling H. Grabert and M.H. Devoret Eds., NATO ASI seires vol.294 (Plenum, NY 1992)Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    J.Bardeen, L.N.Cooper, J.R.Schrieffer, Phys. Rev. 108, 1175 (1957)MathSciNetADSCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    A.Barone, G.Paterno’, Physics and applications of the Josephson effect, (Wiley, New York, 1982 )CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    L.J. Geerligs, M. Peters, L.E.M. de Groot, A. Verbru ggen and J.E. Mooij, Phys. Rev. Lett 63, 326 (1989). In Fig.l Rsq is the resistance divided by the length/width ratio 3.14. Each solid curve corresponds to an array in zero field with the following values of Rn{kΩ), EJ/kB{°K), and EJ/EC: sample A : 36,0.22,3.9; B : 15.3,0.51,1.8; C : 14.1, 0.55,1.5; D : 9.7, 0.80,1.0; E : 4.8,1.6,0.53. The dashed curve is for array D in magnetic field ( / = 1/2).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    B.G. Orr, H.M. Jaeger, A.M. Goldman and C.G. Kuper, Phys. Rev. Lett 56, 378 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [7a]
    H.M.Jaeger, D.B.Haviland, B.G.Orr and A.M.Goldman, Phys.Rev.B40,182 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. [8]
    C.N.Yang, Rev. Mod. Phys. 34,694 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [9]
    G.Giaquinta, N.A.Mancini, Rivista del Nuovo Cimento, 1, 1 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [9a]
    A. Tagliacozzo and F. Ventriglia, Il Nuovo Cimento, 11D, 141 (1989);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [10]
    R.Cristiano, F.Frunzio, R.Monaco, C.Nappi and S.Pagano, Phys.Rev.B49,429 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [11]
    B.D.Josephson, Phys. Lett. 1, 251 (1962)ADSCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. [12]
    R.Kautz and J.M.Martinis Phys. Rev. B42,9903 (1990)ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. [13]
    R.F.Voss and R.A.Webb, Phys.Rev.Lett.47,265 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [13a]
    M.H.Devoret,J.M.Martinis and J.Clarke, Phys.Rev.Lett. 18, 1543 (1985)Google Scholar
  17. [13b]
    A.N.Cleland, J.M.Martinis and J.Clarke, Phys.Rev.B37, 5950 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. [14]
    V.Ambegaokar, U.Eckern, G.Schön, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48,1745, (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [14a]
    U.Eckern, G.Schön, V.Ambegaokar, Phys. Rev. B30,6419, 1984 and V.Ambegaokar, in ref.[2] p.43ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. [15]
    P.W.Anderson, in Lectures on the many body problem, ed. by E.R.Caianiello, (Academic Press 1964 ),vol.2, p.113Google Scholar
  21. [16]
    V.Ambegaokar, A.Baratoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10,486,(1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [17]
    G.Schön and A.D.Zaikin, Phys.Rep. 198,237 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [18]
    A.Tagliacozzo and F.Ventriglia, in “Microscopic Aspects of Nonlinearity in Condensed Matter ” ed. by A.R.Bishop et al. ( Plenum Press, New York 1991)Google Scholar
  24. [19]
    A.Caldeira, A.J.Leggett, Ann. Phys. (NY) 149, 374 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [20]
    A.J.Leggett, S.Chakravarty, A.T.Dorsey, M.P.A.Fisher, A.Garg, W.Zwerger, Rev. Mod. Phys. 59,1 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [21]
    J.E. Mooij and G. Schön in ref.[3] p.275Google Scholar
  27. [22]
    C.Itzykson and J.M.Drouffe, Statistical Field Theory, Cambridge University Press (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [23]
    V.L. Berezinskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 32, 493, (1971)MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  29. [23]
    J.M. Kosterlitz and D.J. Thouless, J.Phys. C6, 1181 (1973)ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. [24]
    J. Villain, J. Phys. 36, 581 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [24a]
    J.V. José et al. Phys. Rev. B16, 1217 (1977) and J.E. Mooij, in ref.[2],p.325ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. [25]
    R. Fazio and G. Schön, Phys. Rev. B43, 5307 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. [26]
    C. Bruder, R.Fazio, A.Kampf, A.van Otterlo and G.Schön, Phys. Scr. T42, 159 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [27]
    A. Kampf and G. Schön,Phys. Rev. B36, 3651 (1987)ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. [27a]
    S. Chakravarty,G.L. Ingold, S.Kivelson and G.T. Zimanyi, Phys. Rev. B37, 3283 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. [27b]
    G. Falci, R. Fazio and G. Giaquinta, Europhys. Lett. 14, 145 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [28]
    M.P.A. Fisher, G. Grinstein an S.M. Girvin Phys. Rev. Lett 64, 587 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [28a]
    M.C. Cha, M.P.A. Fisher, S.M. Girvin, M. Wallin and A.P. Young, Phys. Rev. B44, 6883 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. [29]
    E. Simanek, Solid State Comm. 48, 1023 (1983)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [29a]
    U. Eckern and A. Schmid, Phys. Rev. B10, 6441 (1989)ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. [30]
    C.J. Lobb, D.W. Abraham and M. Tinkham, Phys. Rev. B 27, 250 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. [31]
    T.P. Orlando, J.E. Mooij, and H.S.J, van der Zant, Phys. Rev. B43, 10218 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. [32]
    U. Geigenrmüller, C.J. Lobb and C.B. Whan, Phys. Rev. B 47, 348 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. [32a]
    U. Eckern and E. Sonin, Phys. Rev. B 47, 505 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. [33]
    R. Fazio, A. van Otterlo, G. Schön, Europhys.Lett. 25 453 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [34]
    H.S.J, van der Zant, F.C Fritschy, T.P Orlando and J.E. Mooij, Europhys. Lett. 18, 343 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [35]
    Y. Aharonov and A. Casher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 319 (1984)MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [36]
    B.J. van Wees,Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 255 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [37]
    W.J. Elion, J.J Wachters, L.L. Sohn and J.E. Mooij, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2311 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Fazio
    • 1
    • 3
  • A. Tagliacozzo
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Istituto di Fisica, Facoltá di IngegneriaUniversitá di CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze FisicheUniversita’ di NapoliNapoliItaly
  3. 3.GNSM (CNR) and INFMItaly

Personalised recommendations