Adjuvant Effects on Morphine-Induced Suppression of Immune Responses to MN rgp120/HIV-1 in Mice
Intravenous drug users (IDUs) are more susceptible to infections, including HIV-1 (1Haverkos and Lange, 1990), and have been shown to have suppressed immune responses (Brown et al., 1974). This may be due to a combination of effects, including immunosuppressive effects of the drugs themselves (i.e., morphine, heroin, cocaine), poor nutrition and sharing contaminated needles. Given that a very high percentage of heroin users report injection, often with shared equipment, as the primary route of administration, this population is at high risk for becoming infected with HIV-1. We have shown previously that morphine decreases primary and secondary antibody responses both in vitro and in vivo (Bussiere et al.,1993b) in a murine model. This model may provide information on one risk factor; the interaction between the drugs of abuse and immune responses to a subunit vaccine, recombinant glycoprotein 120 from the MN strain of HIV-1 (rgp120). In addition, morphine has been shown to promote the growth of HIV-1 in vitro (Peterson et al.,1990; Squinto et al.,1990), and promote the growth of SIV in vitro and in vivo in macaques (Chuang et al.,1993). Thus, these drugs may also influence the infectivity of the virus.
KeywordsPlacebo Influenza Morphine Cocaine Interferon
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