Visual Target Velocity Coding through Ocular Muscle Proprioception

  • Gabriel M. Gauthier
  • Jean-Louis Vercher
  • Jean Blouin

Abstract

Considering the eyes as contributing only to visual function is extremely restrictive in that the eyes are also involved, with the head as their carrier, in target position and velocity coding, a vital function for our daily activities. Indeed, to follow a visual object with the hand, the brain has first to code both the object position and velocity with respect to the body and second to program and control the appropriate commands to the arm and hand muscles. As compared to visual function per se and to eye movement control function (saccade, smooth pursuit), the target position and velocity coding with respect to the body is still not elucidated and some basic observations are still controversial. The position of the object with respect to the body has to be computed from the distance of the object image to the fovea and the angular position of the eye in the orbit (with respect to a head-centric reference). Moreover, since the head carries the eyes in space, determination of the target position with respect to the body frame of reference also requires computation of the head angular position with respect to the body. In binocular viewing, both eyes must be aligned on the target and both eye positions must be properly sensed to provide accurate target position coding. We shall limit our analysis of the overall problem of eye-hand tracking of visual target to the coding of a visual target velocity with respect to the body in terms of what is commonly referred to as retinal and extra-retinal coding.

Keywords

Torque Retina Syringe Strabismus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bock, O. & Kommerell, G. (1986) Visual localization after strabismus surgery is compatible with the “Outflow” theory. Vis. Res. 26, 1825–1829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bridgeman, B. & Stark, L. (1991) Ocular proprioception and efference copy in registering visual direction. Vis. Res. 31, 1903–1913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Donaldson, I. M. L. & Knox, P. C. (1993) Evidence for corrective effects of signals from the extraocular muscles on single units in the pigeon vestibulo-ocular system. Exp. Brain Res. 95, 240–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gauthier G. M., Nommay, D. & Vercher, J.-L. (1990) The role of ocular muscle proprioception in visual localization of targets. Science. 249, 58–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gauthier G. M., Bérard, P. V., Deransard, J., Semmlow, J. L. & Vercher, J-L. (1985) Adaptation processes resulting from surgical correction of strabismus. In Adaptive Processes in Visual and Oculomotor Systems, eds. Keller, E. L. & Zee, D.S. pp 185–189, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  6. Gauthier, G. M., De’sperati, C., Tempia, F., Marchetti, E. & Strata, P. (1995) Influence of eye motion on adaptive modifications of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the rat. Exp. Brain Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  7. Grüsser, O. J., Kulikowski, J., Pause, M. & Wollensak, M. (1981) Optokinetic nystagmus, sigmaoptokinetic nystagmus and eye pursuit movements elicited by stimulation of an immobilized human eye. J. Physiol. 320, 21–22.Google Scholar
  8. Steinbach, M. J. & Smith, D. R. (1981) Spatial localization after strabismus surgery: evidence for inflow. Science. 213, 1407–1409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriel M. Gauthier
    • 1
  • Jean-Louis Vercher
    • 1
  • Jean Blouin
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Contrôles Sensorimoteurs URA CNRS 1166Université de ProvenceMarseille cedex 20France

Personalised recommendations