Expression of Neurotransmitter Receptor Subtypes and Subunits in the Mammalian Pineal Gland

  • M. Møller
  • P. Phansuwan-Pujito
  • G. Mick
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 277)


The mammalian pineal gland receives multiple pinealopetal nervous projections (for surveys see Korf and Møller, 1984; Korf and Møller, 1985; Møller et al., 1991). In all investigated species, the gland is innervated by sympathetic nerve fibres originating from perikarya located in the superior cervical ganglia (Kappers, 1960). Further, parasympathetic nerve fibres have been found to innervate the gland in the monkey (Kenny, 1965; Nielsen and Møller, 1975), rabbit (Romijn, 1975), and gerbil (Shiotani et al., 1986). Also nuclei located in the forebrain project to the pineal gland, via the pineal stalk, connecting the gland directly with the optic system and the hypothalamus (central innervation) (Møller and Korf, 1983a,b; Møller and Korf, 1987; Mikkelsen and Møller, 1990; Fink-Jensen and Møller, 1991; Mikkelsen et al., 1991; Larsen et al., 1991). In the rodents, these central pinealopetal fibres mostly terminate in the rostral part of the pineal complex, e.g. the deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk (Møller,1992)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Møller
    • 1
  • P. Phansuwan-Pujito
    • 2
  • G. Mick
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Medical AnatomyUniversity of CopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Dept. of Anatomy, Faculty of MedicineSrinakarinwirot, University of PrasarnmitBangkokThailand
  3. 3.G. Mick, Unité 94Institut national de la Santé et de la Recherche MédicaleBronFrance

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