Cigarette Smoking Is the Key Risk Factor of Hip Fracture in Aged Men and Women

A Large Scale Cohort Study in Japan
  • Takeshi Hirayama


In Oct-Dec. 1965, lifestyles of 122,261 men and 142,857 women aged 40 and above residing in 6 prefectures in Japan were studied by the household interview of public health nurses with 95% coverage rate. These subjects were followed up for 17 years from Jan. 1, 1966 to the end of 1982 (see “Life-styles and Mortality”, T. Hirayama, Karger, 1990). One hundred and forty-six cases of hip fracture (44 in men and 102 in women) were recorded in the 55,523 death certificates collected during the follow-up period (m: 31,979; f: 23,544). These cases were tabulated by lifestyles, and risks for hip fracture were calculated according to each risk factor studied at the time of enrollment.


Cigarette Smoking Death Certificate Coverage Rate Health Nurse Daily Smoker 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takeshi Hirayama
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Preventive OncologyTokyoJapan

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