Development of Opsin and Synapses in Monkey Photoreceptors

  • A. Hendrickson
  • E. Dorn
  • K. Bumsted
  • A. Szel


Primate vision is characterized by high acuity and color perception, each of which originate in cone photoreceptors. Visual sensitivity resides in rod photoreceptors. Adult Macaca monkey retina contains an average of 2.9–3.5 million cones and rods average 60.1 million with considerable individual variation1. Macaca retinal topography is centered on the fovea, a specialized region which contains only cones and has a depression in the inner retina. The monkey fovea has a cone density around 200,000/mm2 which drops rapidly into the periphery. Beginning on the foveal edge, rods rapidly increase in number and rod density peaks at the eccentricity of the optic disc in a circular ring that has a density close to that of foveal cones1–3. This distinctive topography results in a cone-dominated fovea and a rod-dominated periphery whose developmental patterns can be studied separately.


Bipolar Cell Opsin Gene Cone Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse Cone Opsin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Packer, O., Hendrickson, A. and Curcio, C., Photoreceptor topography of the adult pigtail macaque (M. nemestrina). J.Comp.Neuwl. 288, 165, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Curcio, C.A., Sloan, K.R., Kaiina, R.E., and Hendrickson, A.E., Human photoreceptor topography. J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wikler, K.C., Williams, R.W., and Rakic, P., Photoreceptor mosaic: number and distribution of rods and cones in the rhesus monkey retina. J. Comp. Neurol. 297, 499, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nathans, J., Thomas, D., and Hogness, D.S., Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green and red pigments. Science. 232, 193, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Molday, R., Monoclonal antibodies to rhodopsin and other membrane proteins of rod outer segments. Progr. Ret. Res. 8, 173 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Curcio, C.A., Allen, K.A., Sloan, K.R., Lerea, C.L, Hurley, J.B., Klock, I.B. and Milam, A.H., Distribution and morphology of human cone photoreceptors stained with antiblue opsin. J. Comp. Neurol. 312, 610, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wikler, K. and Rakic, P., Distributiion of photoreceptor subtypes in the retina or diurnal and nocturnal primates. J.Neurosci. 10, 3390, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Szel, A., Diamantstein, T., and Rohlich, P., Identification of the blue sensitive cones in the mammalian retina by antivisual pigment antibody. J. Comp. Neurol 273, 593 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anhelt, P.K., Kolb, H. and Pflug, R., Identification of a subtype of cone photoreceptor, likely to be blue sensitive, in the human retina. J.Comp.Neuwl. 255, 18, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Monasterio, F. M., McCrane, E. P. Newlander, J. K., and Schein, S. J., Density profile of blue sensitive cones along the horizontal meridian of macaque retina. Invest. Ophathalmol. Vis. Sci. 26, 289, 1985.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    La Vail, M. M., Rapaport, D. H. and Rakic, P., Cytogenesis in the monkey retina. J. Comp. Neurol. 309, 86 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hendrickson, A.E., Development of the primate retina, Early Visual Development, Normal and Abnormal, K. Simons ed., Oxford, New York, 1993, 287.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Okada, M., Erickson, A., and Hendrickson, A. E., Light and electron microscopic analysis of synaptic development in Macaca monkey retina as detected by immunocytochemical labeling for the synaptic vesicle protein, SV2. J. Comp. Neurol. 339, 535, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lerea, C.L., Milam, A.H. and Hurley, J.B., a transducin is present in blue, green and red sensitive cone photoreceptors in the human retina. Neuron 3, 367, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fulton, A., Hansen, R., Dorn, E. and Hendrickson, A., Development of primate rod structure and function, Infant Vision, F. Vital-Durand, ed., Oxford, New York, 1995, in press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wikler, K.C. and Rakic, P., Relation of an array of early differentiating cones to the photoreceptor mosaic in the primate retina. Nature 351, 397, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matesic, L.E., Robinson, J., and Dowling, J.E., Opsin gene expression in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio): developmental time course. Invest.Ophthal.Vis.Sci.( Supp) 35, 1728, 1994.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Szel, A., Rö hlich, P., Meiziewska, K., Aguirre, G. and van Veen, T., Spatial and temporal differences between the expression of short and middle wave sensitive cone pigments in the mouse retina: a developmental study. J. Comp. Neurol 331, 564 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Szel, A., van Veen, T., and Rö hlich, P., Retinal cone differentiation. Nature 390, 336, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mollen, J.D., and Bowmaker, J.K., The spatial arrangement of cones in the primate fovea. Nature 360, 677, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nishamura, Y. and Rakic, P., Development of the rhesus monkey retina. I. Emergence of the inner plexiform layer and its synapses. J. Comp. Neurol 241, 420, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chui, M.I. and Nathans, J., Blue cones and cone bipolar cells share transcriptional specificity as determined by expression of human blue visual pigment transcribed transgenes. J.Neurosci. 14, 3426, 1994.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen, J., Tucker, C. L., Woodford, B., Szel, A., Lern, J., Gianella-Borradori, A., Simon, M.I. and Bogenmann E., The human blue opsin promoter directs transgene expression in short wave cones and bipolar cells in the mouse retina. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91, 2611, 1994.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Hendrickson
    • 1
    • 2
  • E. Dorn
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. Bumsted
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Szel
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Biological Structure and OphthalmologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Semmelweise UniversityBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations