Characterization of the Human Endometrium in Relation to Implantation
Endometrial receptivity for implantation is highly relevant in the clinical practice of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). By the advancement of assisted reproductive technology, it has become increasingly evident that human implantation is indeed a complex biological process, having many characteristics in common with an inflammatory reaction and a tumour invasion. Since medico-legal contraints limit the possibility of investigating and revealing the mechanisms of human implantation, most research is confined to studies of the separate tissues involved, i.e. the human blastocyst grown in vitro, the endometrium in situ, endometrial biopsy material, and culture of the separate cell types. Without reviewing the entire scientific literature on implantation in animals and man, we would like to present some fundamental views on human implantation with emphasis on studies of the mid-luteal phase endometrium of normal, fertile women. In a recent series of experiments, we obtained endometrial biopsies from the ovulation-timed cycles of normal women, both in control cycles and in treatment cycles, using the progesterone antagonist RU 486. Endometrial biopsies were obtained in the mid-luteal phase at the time corresponding to implantation and these were analysed by immunohistochemistry with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The aim of these studies was to gather basic data that would aid in the manipulation of implantation to improve the success rate of human IVF-ET treatment.
KeywordsLuteinizing Hormone Assisted Reproductive Technology Glandular Epithelium Preimplantation Embryo Endometrial Biopsy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baranao, R.I., Piazza, A., Rumi, L., Polak de Fried, E., 1992, Predictive value of Interleukin-1β in supernatants of human embryo cultures. 48th annual meeting of the American Fertility Society, O-007.Google Scholar
- Bulmer, J.N., Lunny, D.P., and Hagin, S.V., 1988, Immunohistochemical characterization of stromal leukocytes in nonpregnant human endometrium. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 17:83–90.Google Scholar
- Gemzell-Danielsson, K., Swahn, M.-L., Svalander, P. and Bygdeman, M., 1993, Early luteal phase treatment with mifepristone (RU 486) for fertility regulation. Human Reprod. 8:870–873.Google Scholar
- Hertig, A., and Rock, J., 1941, Two human ova of the pre-villous stage, having an ovulation age of about eleven and twelve days respectively, in Contributions to Embryology, No. 184, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Baltimore.Google Scholar
- Noyes, R.W., Hertig, A.T., and Rock, J., 1950, Dating the endometrial biopsy, Fertil Steril. 1:3–25.Google Scholar
- Lopata, A., and Oliva, K., 1993, Regulation of chorionic gonadotropin secretion by cultured human blastocysts, in Preimplantation Embryo Development, B.D. Bavister, ed., Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar