Measurements of pO2 in Vivo, Including Human Subjects, by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
The purpose of this paper is to provide an illustrative description of the current state of development of the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, or completely equivalently, electron spin resonance or ESR) to measure the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in tissues in vivo under physiological conditions. This summary is based on published and unpublished results from our laboratory (1–7) and does not attempt to describe the results of other laboratories which also are working along related lines (8–10). The pertinent features of our technique are illustrated. We also consider the current limitations of the technique and likely developments in the near future. Our evaluation is that: this technique now is suitable for immediate use in small animals; within a short period of time instruments will be available facilitating its use in larger animals; and preliminary studies are imminent in human subjects (7).
KeywordsToxicity Catheter Lithium Rubber Oncol
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.J. F. Glockner and H. M. Swartz, In vivo EPR oximetry using two novel probes: fusinite and lithium phthalocyanine, in: “Oxygen Transport to Tissue XIV”, W. Erdmann and D.F. Bruley, eds., Plenum Publishing Corp., New York (1993).Google Scholar
- 4.N. Vahidi, R.B. Clarkson, K.J. Liu, S.W. Norby, M. Wu, and H.M. Swartz, In vivo and in vitro EPR oximetry with fusinite: a new coal-derived, particulate EPR probe. Magn. Res. Med., in press.Google Scholar
- 5.H.M. Swartz, S. Boyer, D. Brown, K. Chang, P. Gast, J.F. Glockner, H. Hu, K.J. Liu, M. Moussavi, M. Nilges, S.W. Norby, A. Smirnov, N. Vahidi, T. Walczak, M. Wu, and R.B. Clarkson, The use of EPR for the measurement of the concentration of oxygen in vivo in tissues under physiologically pertinent conditions and concentrations, in: “Oxygen Transport to Tissue XIV”, W. Erdmann and D.F. Bruley, eds., Plenum Press, New York (1992).Google Scholar
- 6.A.I. Smirnov, S.W. Norby, T. Walczak, K.J. Liu, and H.M. Swartz, Physical and instrumental considerations in the use of lithium phthalocyanine for measurements of the concentration of the oxygen, J. Magn. Reson., in press (1993).Google Scholar
- 7.H.M. Swartz, K.J. Liu, F. Goda, and T. Walczak, India ink: a potential clinically applicable EPR oximetry probe, Magn. Reson. Med. in press.Google Scholar
- 9.H.J. Halpern, M. Peric, T.D. Nguyen, D.P. Spencer. Selective isotope labeling of a nitroxide spin label to enhance sensitivity for T2 oximetry. J. Magn. Reson. 90:40 (1990).Google Scholar
- 12.M. Wu and H.M. Swartz, Evaluation of the potential cytotoxicity of some paramagnetic materials used in measurements of the concentration of oxygen, Current Topics Biophys. in press.Google Scholar
- 15.H.M. Swartz and J.F. Glockner, Measurement of oxygen by ESRI and ESRS, in: EPR Imaging and In Vivo EPR, G.R. Eaton, S.S. Eaton, and K. Ohno, eds., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL (1991).Google Scholar
- 16.M.J. Nilges, T. Walczak, and H.M. Swartz, 1 GHz in vivo ESR spectrometer operating with a surface probe, Phys. Med., 5:195 (1989).Google Scholar
- 17.H.M. Swartz and T. Walczak, In vivo EPR: prospects for the ‘80’s, Phys. Med., in press (1993).Google Scholar