γδ T Lymphocytes in Mice and Man: A Review
With the discovery of a second type of T cells, those expressing T cell receptor (TCR) γδ, the question has arisen: “What contribution do these cells make to the immune system?” We review here how TCR diversity is generated at the molecular level and what this means for the capability of TCR αβ and TCR γδ to recognize a variety of antigenic peptides in the context of conventional and alternative presenting molecules. We will discuss how tissue distribution and repertoire selection of γδ T cells are in part developmentally regulated and how the repertoire may be further shaped by antigenic stimulation. Critical investigation of the causes and consequences of γδ T cell proliferation in human disease situations will hopefully provide insight into the normal functions of this elusive T cell population.
KeywordsLymphoma Recombination Pneumonia Influenza Tuberculosis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bonneville M, S Itohara, EG Krecko, P Mombaerts, I Ishida, M Katsuki, A Berns, AG Farr, CA Janeway and S Tonegawa, 1990. Transgenic mice demonstrate that epithelial homing of γδ T cells is determined by cell lineages independent of T cell receptor specificity. J. Exp. Med., 171: 1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chien Y, M Iwashima, KB Kaplan, JF Elliott and MM Davis, 1987. A new T-cell receptor gene located within the alpha locus and expressed early in T-cell differentiation. Nature, 312: 455.Google Scholar
- Chotia C, DR Boswell and AM Lesk, 1988. The outline structure of the T-cell αβ receptor. EMBO J., 7: 3745.Google Scholar
- De Geus B, M van den Enden, C Coolen, L Nagelkerken, P van der Heyden and J Rozing, 1990. Phenotype of intraepithelial lymphocytes in euthymic and athymic mice: Implications for differentiation of cells bearing a CD3-associated γδ T cell receptor. Eur. J. Immunol., 20: 291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Deusch K, F Luling, K Reich, M Classen, H Wagner and K Pfeffer, 1991. A major fraction of human intraepithelial lymphocytes simultaneously expresses the γ/δ T cell receptor, the CD8 accessory molecule and preferentially uses the Vδl gene segment. Eur. J. Immunol., 21: 1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Echelberger M, W Allan, SR Carding, K Bottomly and PC Doherty, 1991. Activation status of the CD4-CD8-γδ T cells recovered from mice with influenza pneumonia. J. Immunol., 147: 2069.Google Scholar
- Rabbitts TH, MP Lefranc, MA Stinson, JE Sims, J Schroder, M Steinmetz, NL Spurr, E Solomon and PN Goodfellow, 1985. The chromosomal location of T cell receptor genes and a T cell rearranging gene: Possible correlation with specific translocations in human T cell leukaemia. EMBO J., 4: 1461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spits H, X Paliard, VH Engelhard and JE de Vries, 1990. Cytotoxic activity and lymphokine production of T cell receptor TCR-αβ and TCR-γδ+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones recognizing HLA-A2 and HLA-A2 mutants. Recognition of TCR-γδ+ CTL clones is affected by mutations at positions 152 and 156. J. Immunol., 144: 4156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toyonaga B and TW Mak. Genes of the T-cell antigen receptor in normal and malignant T cells, 1987. Ann. Rev. Immunol., 5: 585.Google Scholar