Treatment of Affective Disorders

Clinical and Basic Aspects
  • Nobutaka Motohashi
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 363)


The neurological separation of affective disorders into unipolar and bipolar was first propounded by Kleist and Leonhard1,2. Their proposal was examined by Angst and Perris3, who demonstrated the difference in the premorbid personality and clinical course in these two entities. First, unipolar depression is more frequent in females than in males. As for bipolar disorder, there is no difference in frequency between males and females. Second, the genetic penetrance is more pronounced in bipolar disorder than in unipolar depression. Third, the premorbid personality of bipolar disorder is syntonic, while that of unipolar depression is asthenic. Lastly, the periodicity is more rapid in bipolar disorder than in unipolar depression. In their follow-up study in 1978, Angst and colleagues4 demonstrated the change of diagnosis. In about 10% of unipolar depression patients, the diagnosis was changed into bipolar disorder. The unipolar patients with three or more episodes were prone to change their diagnosis.


Bipolar Disorder Affective Disorder Mood Stabilizer GABAB Receptor Unipolar Depression 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nobutaka Motohashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology and PsychiatryHiroshima University School of MedicineHiroshima 734Japan

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