Hatching Asynchrony and the Onset of Incubation in Birds, Revisited

When Is the Critical Period?
Part of the Current Ornithology book series (CUOR, volume 12)


In most animals, offspring from a reproductive bout usually hatch, emerge, or are born within a relatively short time of each other compared to the time required for their development. Thus, hatching or birthing in most animals is synchronous. This is especially likely to be true for animals with internal fertilization and development, where the birth of alll offspring occurs simultaneously (e.g., some fihes, snakes, and most mammals). Synchronous reproduction also occurs in animals with external fertilization or development when all zygotes are subject to the same environmental conditions (e.g., many insects, anurans, and fishes). Thus, in most the behavior of parents has little effect on the time between the emergence of their first and last young.


Clutch Size Nest Failure Brood Reduction Fledge Success Early Incubation 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Forestry and Environmental StudiesYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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