Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric Effects and their Possible Mechanisms

  • S. A. Pulinets
  • A. D. Legen’ka
  • V. A. Alekseev


The effects of seismic activity on the ionosphere are now well known and were studied by many scholars (Liperovski et al., 1992 and references herein). Naturally the most interest is connected with those phenomena which could be observed before the main shock but definitely are coupled with the preparing earthquake. Among the ionospheric phenomena we can mention variation of phase of VLF signals (Gufeld and Marenko, 1992; Gufeld et al., 1992), variations of HF signals intensity on passes over the epicenter of preparing earthquake (Gokhberg et al., 1988a), appearing or increasing of Es layers and additional layers (Gokhberg et al., 1988b), spread phenomena on bottomside ionograms within the whole range of altitudes (Khakimov et al., 1991). Sometimes one can observe not only spread phenomena but the large-scale variations of electron density in F-layer occupying the area over the future epicenter with diameter more than 1000 km (Zelenova and Legen’ka, 1989; Pulinets et al., 1991). We can observe changes not only of the electron density but accopmained by temperature, height scale, ion composition variations (Ahmamedov, 1993; Mikhailova et al, 1991). So we can conclude that changes in the state of the ionosphere over the epicenter of future earthquake are profound and comprehensive on all altitudes.


Main Shock Ionospheric Disturbance Earthquake Epicenter Atmospheric Electricity Kerguelen Island 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. A. Pulinets
    • 1
  • A. D. Legen’ka
    • 1
  • V. A. Alekseev
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave PropagationRussian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN), IZMIRANTroitsk, Moscow RegionRussia
  2. 2.Troitsk Institute for Innovation in Thermonuclear Investigations (TRINITI)TRINITITroitsk, Moscow RegionRussia

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