Development of an Emulsion-Based Muramyl Dipeptide Adjuvant Formulation for Vaccines
This chapter contains a summary of the development of a very effective adjuvant that contains a muramyl dipeptide (MDP) analogue (threonyl-MDP, temurtide) in an oil-inwater emulsion vehicle. The oil-in-water emulsion system contains squalane, Pluronic® LI21, and polysorbate 80 in an isotonic, pH 7.4, phosphate-buffered saline solution. This adjuvant elicits both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. While threonyl-MDP serves to increase antibody production and cell-mediated responses, the emulsion vehicle enhances immunogenicity by facilitating presentation of antigens to responding lymphocytes. Because threonyl-MDP does not exhibit toxicity usually associated with alanyl-MDP (pyrogenicity, uveitis, adjuvant-induced arthritis), no safety concerns are anticipated at therapeutic doses. In several animal species, this vehicle proved safe and efficacious, having been used successfully with a variety of antigens.
KeywordsUnited States Pharmacopeia Adjuvant Activity Muramyl Dipeptide Plasma Cell Neoplasm Excipient Emulsifier
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