Ground Level Concentrations of Ozone, Oxidant, PAN and Precursors in the Netherlands During the Last Two Decades and the Relation with the LOTOS-Model
PeroxyAcetylNitrate (PAN), ozone (O3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and hydrocarbons (C2-C4) are measured at several ground level stations in The Netherlands from 1973 onwards. The hydrocarbon measurements at Delft and Moerdijk show the existence of large industrial sources. Analysis of the annual mean values of the compounds has brought about the following results:
• In the seventies levels of C2-C4, NOx and PAN have generally gone up. For O3 and Ox no significant trend is observed.
• In the eighties levels of C2-C4 and NOx have slightly gone down. For PAN, O3 and Ox no significant trend is observed.
The effect of a reduction in precursors on PAN and oxidant levels is estimated with the LOTOS model. The model calculations over April 1985 show, for The Netherlands, that a 30% emission reduction of NOx and VOC results in a 6% reduction of PAN and no reduction of Ox.
KeywordsOzone Concentration Nitrogen Oxide Oxidant Level Harbour Area Ground Level Concentration
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