Crystal Geometry. I

  • M. F. C. Ladd
  • R. A. Palmer


Crystallography grew up as a branch of mineralogy, and involved mainly the recognition, description, and classification of naturally occurring crystal species. X-ray crystallography is a relatively new discipline, dating from the discovery in 1912 of the diffraction of x-rays by crystals. That year marked the beginning of the experimental determination of crystal structures. Figure 1.1 illustrates the structure of sodium chloride, which was among the first crystals to be studied by x-ray techniques.


Point Group Stereographic Projection Parametral Plane Miller Index Symmetry Operation 
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General and Historical Study of Crystallography

  1. Bragg, W. L., A General Survey (The Crystalline State, Vol. I), London, Bell (1949).Google Scholar
  2. Ewald, P. P. (Editor), Fifty Years of X-ray Diffraction, Utrecht, Oosthoek (1962).Google Scholar

Crystal Morphology and Stereographic Projection

  1. Phillips, F.C., An Introduction to Crystallography, London, Longmans (1971).Google Scholar

Crystal Symmetry and Point Groups

  1. Hahn, T. (Editor), International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. A, Dordrecht, D. Reidel (1983).Google Scholar
  2. Henry, N. F. M., and Lonsdale, K. (Editors), International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, Vol. I, Birmingham, Kynoch Press (1965).Google Scholar
  3. Ladd, M. F. C., Symmetry in Molecules and Crystals, Chichester, Ellis Horwood (1989).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. F. C. Ladd
    • 1
  • R. A. Palmer
    • 2
  1. 1.University of SurreyGuildfordEngland
  2. 2.Birkbeck CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonEngland

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