In most of the two-component systems discussed so far, such as rubber-reinforced polyblends, the density or specific volume is approximately an average of the values for each component. There may be some exceptions to this generalization ; for example, if the smaller component fills free volume available in the major phase (Chander, 1971; Harmer, 1962; Huang and Kanitz, 1969). A similar but more important phenomenon exists when the volume available for filling by a monomer comprises not only “free” volume elements, but also gross pores, which may range in size from tens of angstroms to the order of micrometers or more. Examples of matrices may include partially sintered polymers, ceramics or metals, cement, concrete, minerals and rocks, paper, and wood (American Chemical Society, 1973). Clearly such systems tend to be complex; even the matrix itself is often a multiphase material.
KeywordsPermeability Fatigue Foam Epoxy Rubber
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