Advertisement

Freezing and Vitrification of Red Cells, Recollections and Predictions

  • H. T. Meryman
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Hematology and Immunology book series (DIHI, volume 36)

Abstract

The subject of red cell freezing has been reviewed repeatedly since the first report of glycerol cryoprotection by Audrey Smith in 1950 [1]. At least four books on the subject have been published [2-5] and the science, the technology and the applications have been so exhaustively documented that yet another review of red cell freezing seems largely redundant. What is still missing, however, are those obscure and statistically insignificant events that never found their way into print, often for good reason, and known only to a few of the rapidly diminishing ranks of octogenarians who were there at the creation. The goal of this review, therefore, is not only to summarize the topic as it is understood today but also to recall the human side of some of the milestones in the development of red cell freezing, many of them autobiographical.

Keywords

Glycerol Concentration Hydroxyethyl Starch Freezing Injury High Glycerol Freeze Blood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Smith AU. Prevention of hemolysis during freezing and thawing of red blood cells. Lancet 1950;2:910–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Turner AR. Frozen blood. New York: Gordon and Breach, 1970.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Red cell freezing: A technical workshop. Washington. DC: American Association of Blood Banks, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Valeri CR. Blood banking and the use of frozen blood products. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clinical and practical aspects of the use of frozen blood. Washington, DC: American Association of Blood Banks, 1977.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Luyet B.I. Effects of ultra-rapid and of slow freezing and thawing on mammalian erythrocytes. Biodynamica 1949;6:217–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Strumia M. Freezing of Whole Blood. In: The preservation of the formed elements and of the proteins of the blood. Washington, DC: American National Red Cross, 1949:160–66.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Griffins.IJ, Hornibrook JW, Downs JJ. Freezing and thawing red blood cells. In: The preservation of the formed elements and of the proteins of the blood. Washington, DC: American National Red Cross, 1949:167–68.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walter CW, Gibson JG. Freezing of red blood cells. In: The preservation of the formed elements and of the proteins of the blood. Washington, DC: American National Red Cross, 1949:169.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Polge C, Smith AU, Parkes AS. Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration at low temperatures. Nature 1949:164:666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parkes AS. Off-beat biologist. Cambridge: Galton Foundation, 1985:438–39.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Smith AU. Prevention of hemolysis during freezing and thawing of red blood cells. Lancet 1950;ii:910–11.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sloviter HA. Recovery of human red blood cells after freezing. Lancet 1951;1:823–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mollison PL and Sloviter I IA. Successful transfusion of previously frozen human red blood cells. Lancet 1951;ii:862–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mollison PL, Sloviter FIA, Chaplin II. Survival of transfused red cells previously stored for long periods in the frozen state. Lancet 1952;ii:501–05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lovelock IL. Re-suspension in plasma of human red blood cells frozen in glycerol. Lancet 1952:i:1238–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Meryman HT. Hornblower M. A method for freezing and washing red blood cells using a high glycerol concentration. Transfusion 1972;12:145–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chaplin H. Mollison PL. Improved storage of red cells at -20(. Lancet 1953;i:215–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chaplin H. Veall N. Removal of glycerol from previously frozen red cells: a modified method. Lancet 1953;i:218–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Buckley F. Gibson JG. D’Hart MD, Tinch RJ. “Long Traverse Centrifuge” Proc. 2nd conf. on the separation of the formed elements of the blood. 1950. Boston. MA.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lovelock JE. The mechanism of the protective action of glycerol against haemolysis by freezing and thawing. Biochem Biophys Acta 1953;11:28–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mazur P. Causes of injury in frozen and thawed cells. Fed Proc 1965:24(2.pt.3): S 175–82.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meryman HT. The exceeding of a minimum tolerable cell volume in hypertonie suspension as a cause of freezing injury. In: Wolstenholme GEW. O’Conner M. eds. The frozen cell. London:.1 & A Churchill, 1970:51–64.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meryman FIT, Williams RI, Douglas M St.l. Freezing injury from “solution efTects” and its prevention by natural or artificial cryoprotection. Cryobiology 1977;14:287–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    I lunter FR. Facilitated diffusion in pigeon erythrocytes. Amer. J. Physiol. 1970;218: 1765–72.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lovelock JE, Bishop MWI1. Prevention of freezing damage to living cells by di-methyl sulfoxide. Nature 1959;183:1394–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dowell LG, Rinfret AP. Low temperature forms of ice as studied by X-ray diffraction. Nature 1960;188:1144–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Williams RJ, Bruni F. Leopold AC. Changes in the vitreous state of dry dormant seeds with germination. Cryobiology 1990;27:656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Meryman HT. Replication of frozen liquids by electron microscopy. J Appl Physics 1950;21:68.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Meryman HT, Kafig E. The study of frozen specimens, ice crystals and ice crystal growth by electron microscopy. Research Report: Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD. 1955;13:529–44.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Knisely MH, Elliot TS, Bloch EH. Sludged blood in traumatic shock. Arch Surg 1945;51:220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bloch Eli, Powell A, Meryman HT, Warner L, Kafig E. A comparison of the surfaces of human erythrocytes from health and disease by in vivo light microscopy and in vitro electron microscopy. Angiology 1956;7:479–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meryman HT, Kafig E. Rapid freezing and thawing of whole blood. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol Med 1955;90:587–89.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rinfret AP, Doebbler GF. Observations on the freezing and thawing of blood in droplet form. Biodynamica 1960;8:181–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Doebbler GF, Rowe AW, Rinfret AP. Freezing of mammalian blood. In: Meryman HT, ed. Cryobiology. New York: Academic Press,1966:407–50.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rinfret AP. Some aspects of preservation of blood by rapid freeze-thaw procedures. Fed Proc 1963;22:94–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Strumia MM, Colwell LS, Strumia PV. The preservation of blood for transfusion. V. Post-transfusion survival of red cells modified with sugars, frozen, and stored in the frozen state. J Clin Med 1960:56:587–93.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pert JH. Moore R, Schork.PK. Low temperature preservation of human erythrocytes. Bibl Haemat 1964; 23 :674–82.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Strumia MM, Strumia PV. Recovery and survival of human red cells frozen with albumin, dextran, and lactose-albumin. Bibl Haemat 1962;19:61–8.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Steinbuch H, Questin M. Recherches sur la congelation du globule rouge en milieu macromoleculaire. Vox Sang 1958;3:123–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Knorpp CT, Merchant WR, Gikas PW, Spencer IIH, Thompson NW. Hydroxyethyl starch: extracellular cryophylactic agent for erythrocytes.Science 1967;157:1312–13.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bloom, ML, Witebski E. Rinfret AP, Doebbler GF, Cowley CW. Rapidly hard-frozen blood: evaluation of progress and clinical survival. Bibl Haemat 1965;23:64245.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Allen Ed, Weaterbee L. Spencer MI, Lindenauer SM. Permoad PA. Large unit red cell cryopreservation with hydroxyethyl starch. Cryobiology 1976; 13:500–06.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Williams RJ. The surface activity of PVP and other polymers and their antihemolytic capacity. Cryobiology 1983;20:521–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sputtek A, Körber Ch, Rau G. Cryopreservation of human erythrocytes with hydroxyethylated starches under variation of starch modification and concentration. electrolyte content, hematocrit, and cooling rate. Cryobiology 1990; 27:667–68.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thomas MJG, Parry ES. Nash SG, Bell SH. A method for the cryopreservation of red blood cells using hydroxyethyl starch as a cryoprotcctant. Transfus Sei 1995;17:38596.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tullis JL. Use of Cohn fractionator in connection with the preservation of red cells in glycerol. In: [Proceedings 9th] Conference of the plasma proteins and cellular elements of the blood. 1954;Cambridge, Mass.. Protein Foundation:25–26.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ketchel MM. Tullis JL, Tinch Ri. Driscol SG. Surgenor DM. Use of biomechanical equipment for the long-term preservation of erythrocytes. JAMA 1958:168:404–08.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huggins CE. Preservation of blood by freezing with dimethyl sulfoxide and its removal by dilution and erythrocyte agglomeration. Vox Sang 1963;8;99–100.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huggins CE. A system for the preservation of blood by freezing. Bibl Haemat 1965;23:662–66.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Moss GS, Valeri CR, Brodine CE. Clinical experience with the use of frozen blood in combat casualties. N Engl J Med 1968;278:747–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rowe AW, Eyster E. Kellner A. Liquid nitrogen preservation of red blood cells for transfusion; a low glycerol-rapid freeze procedure. Cryobiology 1968;5:119–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pert ill. Schork PK. Moore R. Low temperature preservation of human erythrocytes: biochemical and clinical aspects. Bibl Haemat 1964;19:47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Krijnen HW. de Wit J.IFrM, Kuivenhoven ACJ. Loos.IA, Prins HK. Glycerol treated human red cells frozen with liquid nitrogen. Vox Sang 1964:9:559–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Huggins CE. Preservation of transfusions by freezing with dimethyl sulfoxide. Bibl Hemat 1964:19:69–74.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Meryman HT, Bross J, Lebovitz R. The preparation of leukocyte-poor red cells: a comparative study. Transfusion 1980;20:285–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Meryman HT, Yoshinari M, Tokunaga E, Roht L. The effects of red cell freezing and deglycerolizing or of saline washing on post-transfusion hepatitis (abs). Transfusion 1979;19:656Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Valeri CR. Metabolic regeneration of depleted erythrocytes and their frozen storage. In: The human red cell in vitro. Greenwalt TJ and Jamieson GA, (eds). New York. Grune and Stratton, 1974:281–321.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    IBM, the CPU that processed blood. Datamation 1973;19:110.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schlutz CA, Bellamy D. Continuous flow cell washing system. Transfusion 1968;8: 299–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Valeri CR. Simplification of the methods for adding and removing glycerol during freeze-preservation of human red blood cells with the high or low glycerol methods: Biochemical modification prior to freezing. Transfusion 1975:15:195–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Meryman IIT, Hornblower M. Freezing and deglycerolizing sickle-trait red blood cells. Transfusion 1976:16:627–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. T. Meryman
    • 1
  1. 1.Cryopreservation and Transfusion ProgramNaval Medical Research CenterSilver SpringUSA

Personalised recommendations