The evolution of manufacturing from stand-alone automation to computer-integrated manufacturing has occurred since the 1960s. During the 1960s, stand-alone automation received the most attention. This type of automation, also known as point automation, consists of workstations that may vary from one numerically controlled machine to a number of numerically controlled machines operated by a skilled operator. In standalone automation, the material handling normally is performed manually.
KeywordsFlow Shop Flexible Manufacturing System Machine Type Tool Type Twist Drill
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