The Chemistry of Seeds

  • Lawrence O. Copeland
  • Miller B. McDonald


A knowledge of the chemical composition of seeds is essential for several reasons: (1) seeds are a basic source of food for both people and animals, (2) they are an important source of medicine and drugs, (3) they contain various antimetabolites that adversely affect human and animal nutrition, (4) they are an important source of raw materials useful for various industrial purposes, and (5) they contain reserve food supplies and growth substances that influence seed germination and seedling vigor, seed storage, and longevity.


Erucic Acid Seed Protein Soybean Seed Maleic Hydrazide Cereal Seed 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

General References

  1. Allen, S. E., and G. L. Terman. 1978. Yield and protein content of rice as affected by rate, source, method, and time of applied N. Agronomy Journal 70:238–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altman, D. W., W. L. McCuistion, and W. E. Kronstad. 1983. Grain protein percentage, kernel hardness, and grain yield of winter wheat with foliar applied urea. Agronomy Journal 75:87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Auld, D. L., B. L. Bettis, and M. J. Dial. 1984. Planting date and cultivar effect on winter rape production. Agronomy Journal 76:197–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin, R. B. 1966. The growth of watercress Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum L. (Hayek) from seed as affected by the phosphorus nutrition of the mother plant. Plant and Soil 24:113–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baenziger, P. S., R. L. Clements, M. S. Mcintosh, W. T. Yamazaki, T. M. Sterling, D. I. Sammons, and J. W. Johnson. 1985. Effect of cultivar, environment, and their interaction and stability analyses on milling and baking qualities of soft red winter wheat. Crop Science 25:5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bloor, W. R. 1928. Biochemistry of fats. Chemical Review 2:243–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonner, J., and J. E. Varner, eds. 1965. Plant Biochemistry. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, C. A., H. R. Davidson, and G. E. Winkleman. 1981. Effect of nitrogen, temperature, growth stage and duration of moisture stress on yield components and protein content of Manitou spring wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 61:549–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Canvin, D. T. 1965. The effect of temperature on the oil content and fatty acid composition of the oils from several oil seed crops. Canadian Journal of Botany 43:63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cary, E. E. 1981. Effect of selenium and cadmium additions to soil on their concentration in lettuce and wheat. Agronomy Journal 73:703–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cassman, K. G., A. S. Whitney, and R. L. Fox. 1981. Phosphorus requirements of soybean and cowpea as affected by mode of N fertilization. Agronomy Journal 73:17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coffelt, T. A., and D. L. Hallock. 1986. Soil fertility responses of Virginia-type peanut cultivars. Agronomy Journal 78:131–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cornforth, J. W., B. V. Milborrow, G. Ryback, and P. F. Wareing. 1965. Identity of sycamore “dormin” with abscisin II. Nature 205:1269–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crane, J. M, W. Calhoun, and T. A. Ayres. 1981. Seed and oil characteristics of fertilized meadowfoam. Agronomy Journal 73:255–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crocker, W., and L. V. Barton. 1957. Physiology of Seeds. Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanica Company.Google Scholar
  16. Crocker, W., A. E. Hitchcock, and P. W. Zimmerman. 1935. Similarities in the effects of ethylene and the plant auxins. Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute 7:231–248.Google Scholar
  17. DeDatta, S. K., W. N. Obcemea, and R. K. Jana. 1972. Protein content of rice grain as affected by nitrogen fertilizer and some triazines and substituted ureas. Agronomy Journal 64:785–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diepenbrock, W., and G. Geisler. 1979. Compositional changes in developing pods and seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) as affected by pod position on the plant. Canadian Journal of Plant Sciences 59:819–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dudley, J. W., and R. J. Lambert. 1968. Genetic variability after 65 generations of selection in Illinois high oil, low oil, high protein, and low protein strains of Zea mays L. Crop Science 9:179–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Earle, F. R., J. J. Curtice, and J. E. Hubbard. 1956. Composition of the component parts of the corn kernel. Cereal Chemistry 23:507.Google Scholar
  21. Elmore, C. D., W. I. Spurgeon, and W. O. Thorn. 1979. Nitrogen fertilization increases N and alters amino acid concentration of cottonseed. Agronomy Journal 71:713–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ene, B. N., and E. W. Bean. 1975. Variations in seed quality between certified seed lots of perennial rye grass and their relationships to nitrogen supply and moisture status during seed development. Journal of British Grassland Society 30:195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Francois, L. E., E. V. Maas, T. J. Donovan, and V. L. Youngs. 1986. Effect of salinity on grain yield and quality, vegetative growth, and germination of semi-dwarf and durum wheat. Agronomy Journal 78:1053–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gbikpi, P. J., and R. K. Crookston. 1981. Effect of flowering date on accumulation of dry matter and protein in soybean seeds. Crop Science 21:652–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Glenn, D. M., A. Carey, F. E. Bolton, and M. Vavra. 1985. Effect of N fertilizer on protein content of grain, straw and chaff tissues in soft white winter wheat. Agronomy Journal 77:229 232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Greaves, J. E., and E. G. Carter. 1923. The influence of irrigation water on the composition of grains and the relationship to nutrition. Journal of Biological Chemistry 58:531–541.Google Scholar
  27. Green, A. G. 1986. Effect of temperature during seed maturation on the oil composition of low- linolenic genotypes of flax. Crop Science 26:961–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gubbels, G. H. 1981. Quality, yield and seed weight of green field peas under conditions of applied shade. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 61:213–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harrington, J. F. 1960. Germination of seeds from carrot, lettuce, and pepper plants grown under severe nutrient deficiencies. Hilgardia 20:219–255.Google Scholar
  30. Harris, H. C, I. R. McWilliam, and V. J. Bofinger. 1980. Prediction of oil quality of sunflower from temperature probabilities in eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 31:477–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Howell, R. W., and J. L. Carter. 1958. Physiological factors affecting composition of soybeans. II. Responses of oil and other constituents of soybeans under controlled conditions. Agronomy Journal 50:664–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ivanov, N. N. 1933. Cause of the chemical variation of chickpea seeds. Bulletin of Applied Botanical Genetics, Plant Breeding Senes 3(1):3–11. (Chemical Abstracts 27:5370, 1933).Google Scholar
  33. Jones, O. R. 1984. Yield, water use efficiency, and oil concentration and quality of dryland sunflower grown in the southern high plains. Agronomy Jounnal 76:229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Karathanasis, A. D., V. A. Johnson, G. A. Peterson, D. H. Sander, and R. A. Olsen. 1980. Relation of soil properties and other environmental factors to grain yield and quality winter wheat grown at international sites. Agronomy Journal 72:329–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kerr, R. W., ed. 1950. Chemistry and Industry of Starch. 2d ed. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Ketring, D. L., C. E. Simpson, and O. D. Smith. 1978. Physiology of oil seeds. VII. Growing season and location effects on seedling vigor and ethylene production by seeds of three peanut cultivars. Crop Science 18:409–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Loneragan, J. F., K. Snowball, and A. D. Robson. 1980. Factors influencing variability in manganese content of seeds, with emphasis on barley (Hordeum vulgare) and white lupine (Lupinus albus). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 41:29–37.Google Scholar
  38. Malid, H. R., and A. A. Schneiter. 1987. Yield and quality of semidwarf and standard-height sunflower hybrids grown at five plant populations. Agronomy Journal 79:681–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mathers, A. C., and B. A. Stewart. 1982. Sunflower nutrient uptake, growth, and yield as affected by nitrogen or manure, and plant population. Agronomy Journal 74:911–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mathers, A. C., F. G. Viets, Jr., M. E. Jensen, and W. H. Sletten. 1960. Relationship of nitrogen and grain sorghum yield under three moisture regimes. Agronomy Journal 52:443–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meyer, B. S., D. B. Anderson, and R. H. Bohning. 1960. Introduction to Plant Physiology. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company.Google Scholar
  42. Miller, E. C. 1931. Plant Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  43. Mitchell, E. M. 1930. A microchemical study of hemicelluloses of endosperms and cotyledons. American Journal of Botany 17:117–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morrison, F. B. 1961. Feeds and Feeding. Ithaca, N.Y.: Morrison Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  45. Mothes, K., L. E. Engelbrecht, and O. Kulajewa.1959. Uber die Wirkung des Kinetins auf Stickstoffverteilung und Eiweiss-synthese in isolierten Blattem. Flora: Oder Allgemein Botanische Zeitung 147:445–464.Google Scholar
  46. Nandisha, B. S., and M. Mahadevappa. 1984. Influence of mother-plant nutrition and spacing on planting value of rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Research 12:25–32.Google Scholar
  47. Norden, A. J., E. C. Rossman, and E. J. Benne. 1952. Some factors that affect protein content of corn. Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 34:210–225.Google Scholar
  48. Ohkuma, K. 1965. Synthesis of some analogs of abscisin II. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 29:962–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Osborne, T. B. 1924. Monographs on Biochemistry: The Vegetable Proteins. London: Longmans, Green, and Company.Google Scholar
  50. Owen, D. F. 1983. Differential response of sunflower hybrids to planting date. Agronomy Journal 75:259–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Parker, M. B., F. C. Boswell, K. Ohki. L. M. Shumand, and D. O. Wilson. 1981. Manganese effects on yield and nutrient concentration in leaves and seed of soybean cultivars. Agronomy Journal 73:643–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Peck, N. H., D. L. Grunes, R. M. Welch, and G. E. MacDonald.1980. Nutritional quality of vegetable crops as affected by phosphorus and zinc fertilizers. Agronomy Journal 72:528–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pikaard, C. S., and J. H. Cherry. 1984. Maintenance of normal or supranormal protein accumulation in developing ovules of Glycine max (L.) Merr. during PEG-induced water stress.Plant Physiology 75:176–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Poole, W. D., G. W. Randall, and G. E. Ham. 1983. Foliar fertilization of soybeans. I. Effect of fertilizer sources, rates and frequency of application. Agronomy Journal 75:195–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Porter, M. A., and G. M. Paulsen. 1983. Grain protein response to phosphorus nutrition of wheat. Agronomy Journal 75:303–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Raboy, V., and D. B. Dickinson. 1984. Effect of phosphorus and zinc nutrition on soybean seed hytic acid and zinc. Plant Physiology 75:1094–1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Radford, R. L., C. Chavengsaksongkram, and T. Hymowitz. 1977. Utilization of nitrogen to sulphur ratio for evaluating sulphur-coating amino acid concentration in seed of Glycine max andG. soya. Crop Science 11:213–211.Google Scholar
  58. Radley, M. 1956. Occurrence of substances similar to gibberellic acid in higher plants. Nature 178:1070–1071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Read, D. W. L., and F. G. Warder. 1982. Wheat and barley responses to rates of seeding and fertilizer in southwestern Saskatchewan. Agronomy Journal 74:33–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Richmond, A. E., and A. Lang. 1957. Effect of kinetin on protein content and survival of detached Xanthium leaves. Science 125:650–651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Robinson, R. G. 1983. Yield and composition of field bean and adzuki bean in response to irrigation, compost, and nitrogen. Agronomy Journal 75:31–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Robinson, R. G., J. H. Ford, W. E. Lueschen, D. L. Rabas, L. J. Smith, D. D. Warnes, and J.V. Wiersma. 1980. Responseof sunflower to plant population. Agronomy Journal 72:869–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Scott, R. K. 1969. The effect of sowing and harvesting dates, plant population and fertilizers on seed yield and quality of direct-drilled sugar beet seed crops. Journal of Agricultural Science 70:373–385.Google Scholar
  64. Shannon, J. G., J. R. Wilcox, and A. H. Probst. 1972. Estimated gains from selection for protein and yield in the F4 generation of six soybean populations. Crop Science 12:824–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Simmons, S. R., and D. N. Moss. 1978. Nitrogen and dry matter accumulation by kernels formed at specific florets in spikelets of spring wheat. Crop Science 18:139–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stone, J. F., and B. B. Tucker. 1968. Nitrogen conent of grain as influenced by water supply to the plant. Agronomy Journal 61:76–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stone, J. F., R. H. Griffin, II, and B. J. Ott. 1964. Irrigation studies of grain sorghum in the Oklahoma Panhandle, 1958 to 1962. Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin B-619.Google Scholar
  68. Thomas, T. H., P. F. Wareing, and P. M. Robinson. 1965. Action of the sycamore “dormin” as a gibberellin antagonist. Nature 205:1270–1272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Touchton, J. T., and F. C. Boswell. 1975. Effects of boron application on soybean yield, chemical composition and related characteristics. Agronomy Journal 67:417–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Unger, P. W. 1986. Growth and development of irrigated sunflower in the Texas high plains. Agronomy Journal 78:508–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Van Overbeek, J., M. E. Conklin, and A. F. Blakeslee. 1941. Factors in coconut milk essential for growth and development of very young Datura embryos. Science 94:350–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wolfson, J. L., and G. Shearer. 1981. Amino acid composition of grain protein of maize grow with and without pesticides and standard commercial fertilizers. Agronomy Journal 73:611–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence O. Copeland
    • 1
  • Miller B. McDonald
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Crop & Soil SciencesMichigan State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Department of Horticulture & Crop ScienceOhio State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations