In this chapter the general formulations of the neoclassical circuit theory will be adapted to the well known phenomenon of 1/ f noise in active electronic devices and material samples under nonequilibrium conditions. It will be demonstrated that the theory predicts low frequency noise excitations with power spectral density inversely proportional to the frequency. The 1/ f noise comes in addition to the ever present thermal noise which is well understood and has no relation to 1/ f noise. But first a brief description of 1/ f noise which is observed experimentally in essentially all electronic materials and devices, such as simple resistors, semiconductors, metallic thin films, diodes, transistors, electrolytic solutions, Josephson junctions and many more. The universal presence of 1/ f noise in such a diverse group of materials and devices points to the existence of some deeper principle or law of nature that applies to all nonequilibrium electronic systems. Lots of ink has flown in efforts to pin down and understand its origin, with numerous specific models of the noise mechanism proposed. But none of these have satisfied the requirement of being universally applicable to a large number of diverse cases and systems.
KeywordsTransmission Line Power Spectral Density Quantum Measurement Resistor Surface Radial Line
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