Has the Importance of Foreign Markets for U.S. Agriculture Been Oversold?

  • Bruce L. Gardner
Part of the Natural Resource Management and Policy book series (NRMP, volume 20)


From Colonial days until now, trade in cotton, grain, and tobacco have been major items on the economic and political agenda for agriculture. Farmers have expressed no greater political outrage over the last 50 years than they did in response to the grain-export embargoes of the 1970s. Each party’s Presidential candidate since 1980 has pledged to abjure embargoes. Secretaries of Agriculture, whatever their party and policy differences, have been relentless promoters of agricultural exports.


Foreign Market Export Market Commodity Price Farm Income Land Price 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Babula, R.A., F.J. Ruppel, and D.A. Bessler. 1995. “U.S. Corn Exports: the Role of the Exchange Rate.” Agricultural Economics 13 (November): 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brandow, G.E. 1977. “Policy for Commercial Agriculture: 1945–72,” in L. Martin, ed., A Survey of Agricultural Economics Literature, Vol. 1, pp. 209–292. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  3. Chambers, C.R. 1924. “Relation of Farm Land Income to Farm Land Value.” American Economic Review 14 (December): 673–698.Google Scholar
  4. Chambers, R. and P. Paarlberg. 1991. “Are More Exports Always Better?” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 73: 142–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clarke, S. 1995. Regulation and the Revolution in U.S. Farm Productivity. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cochrane, W. and M. Ryan. 1976. American Farm Policy. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  7. Engle, R.F. and C.W.J. Granger. 1987. “Co-Integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing.” Econometrica 55: 251–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Galbraith, J.K. 1981. A Life in Our Times. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.Google Scholar
  9. Gardner, B.L. 2000. “International Trade and the Future of American Agriculture.” Journal of Agribusiness 18 (March): 27–40.Google Scholar
  10. Gardner, B.L. 1996. “The Federal Government in Commodity Markets.” Agricultural History 70: 177–195.Google Scholar
  11. Gardner, B.L. 1989. “Recent Studies of Agricultural Trade Liberalization,” in A. Maunder and A. Valdes, eds., 361–371. Agriculture and Governments in an Interdependent World, Internation Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) Proceedings. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing.Google Scholar
  12. Jones, C.I. 1999. “Growth: With or Without Scale Effects?” American Economic Review 89 (May): 139–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Morgan, D. 1979. Merchants of Grain. New York, NY: Viking Press.Google Scholar
  14. Raneses, A.R., L.K. Glaser, J.M. Price, and J.A. Duffield. 1999. “Potential Bio-diesel Markets and Their Economic Effects on the Agricultural Sector of the U.S.” Industrial Crops and Products 9: 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Salathe, L.E., J.M. Price, and K.E. Gadsen. 1982. “The Food and Agricultural Policy Simulator.” Agricultural Economics Research 34 (April): 1–15.Google Scholar
  16. Schuh, G.E. 1974. “The Exchange Rate and U.S. Agriculture.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 56: 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Stigler, G.J. 1951. “The Division of Labor is Limited by the Extent of the Market.” Journal of Political Economy 59: 185–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). Various years. Agricultural Statistics. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  19. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 1999a. Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2008. World Agricultural Outlook Board, Staff Report No. WAOB-99-1. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (February).Google Scholar
  20. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 1999b. USDA Baseline Highlights. World Agricultural Outlook Board. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  21. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 1998. Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2007. World Agricultural Outlook Board, Staff Report WAOB-98-1. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (February).Google Scholar
  22. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 1986. Embargoes, Surplus Disposal, and U.S. Agriculture. Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economic Report No. 564. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (December).Google Scholar
  23. World Bank. 1986. World Development Report. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruce L. Gardner
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MarylandUSA

Personalised recommendations