The Identification and Classification of Genetically Modified Organisms: Implications for Trade

  • Richard Gray
  • Jill E. Hobbs
  • Faycal Haggui
Part of the Natural Resource Management and Policy book series (NRMP, volume 20)


The development, licensing, and production of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have recently become the center of some controversy. Those strongly opposed to genetically modified (GM) products argue that the genetic modification process is unnatural and could result in life forms that are dangerous to the ecosystem and to human health. At the other end of the spectrum there are those who believe that GMOs pose no additional risk and offer a great deal of potential for improvements in the production of food. This controversy has spilled over into the international trade arena, leading to different approaches to the development, licensing, and regulation of GMOs.


Genetically Modify Market Failure Genetically Modify Crop Negative Externality Positive Externality 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Gray
    • 1
  • Jill E. Hobbs
    • 1
  • Faycal Haggui
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SaskatchewanCanada

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