Goal and Reference Point Methods

  • Valerie Belton
  • Theodor J. Stewart


Goal programming and its variants represent in many ways the earliest attempts at providing formal quantitative decision aid for complex multiple criteria decision problems. The approach was described by Charnes and Cooper (1961), while the reviews of Romero (1986) and of Schniederjans (1995) cite references dating back to the 1950s. A number of textbooks have appeared over the years, for example Lee (1972) and Ignizio (1976; 1985). A comprehensive recent review may be found in Lee and Olson (1999).


Decision Maker Goal Programming Aspiration Level Decision Space Priority Class 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valerie Belton
    • 1
  • Theodor J. Stewart
    • 2
  1. 1.University of StrathclydeGlasgowScotland
  2. 2.University of Cape TownSouth Africa

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