Role of Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Ophthalmopathy

  • Yuji Hiromatsu
  • Tomasz Bednarczukt
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 14)


Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is generally accepted to be an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the extraocular muscles (EM) and the orbital fatty/connective tissue (OCT) that is closely associated with Graves’ disease (1, 2, 3).


Extraocular Muscle Orbital Tissue Orbital Fibroblast Cigarette Smoke Constituent Retrobulbar Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuji Hiromatsu
    • 1
  • Tomasz Bednarczukt
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismKurume University School of MedicineFukuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of EndocrinologyMedical Research Center, Polish Academy of ScienceWarsawPoland

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