Immunosuppressive Therapy

  • Mark F. Prummel
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 14)


On the premise that Graves’ ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune disorder, immunosuppressive therapy has become the mainstay of treatment if the disease is severe enough. The pathogenesis of Graves’ ophthalmopathy is not yet clear and the relative importance of cellularversushumoral immune responses against the orbital tissues is uncertain. This is one of the reasons that targeted immunomodulating therapies have not been used in this disease. Therefore, most patients with moderate to severe eye disease are treated with general anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatments like corticosteroids and/or orbital irradiation. In the first part of this chapter the advantages and disadvantages of these and other currently used therapies will be discussed. In the second part, possible future developments involving newer forms of immunomodulation will be mentioned.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Islet Transplantation Oral Prednisone Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis rheumatOid arthritiS 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark F. Prummel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Academic Medical CenterUniversity of AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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