Advertisement

Respiratory Control of Hypoglossal Motoneurons

  • John H. Peever
  • James Duffin
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 499)

Abstract

Hypoglossal motoneurons innervate the tongue muscles1which participate in a variety of motor tasks, including breathing.2Understanding the respiratory control of hypoglossal motoneurons is essential because of their critical involvement in maintaining airway patency during normal breathing, and their putative role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea.3, 4Despite such importance in both normal and altered physiological states, virtually nothing is known about how respiratory rhythm is transmitted to them.

Keywords

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypoglossal Nerve Respiratory Rhythm Hypoglossal Nucleus Premotor Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    E. G. Dobbins, and J. L. Feldman, Differential innervation of protruder and retractor muscles of the tongue in ratJ. Comp. Neurol. 357376–394 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. A. Lowe, The neural regulation of tongue movementsProg. Neurobiol. 15, 295–344 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. E. Remmers, W. J. de Groot, E. K. Sauerland, and A. M. Anch, Pathogenesis of upper airway occlusion during sleepJ. Appl. Physiol. 44, 931–938 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. F. Fregosi, and D. D. Fuller, Respiratory-related control of extrinsic tongue muscle activityRespir. Physiol. 110295–306 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. C. Borke, E. Martin, and R. L. Ringler Jr., Brain stem afferents of hypoglossal neurons in the ratBrain Res. 26947–55 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Ugolini, Specificity of rabies virus as a transneuronal tracer of motor networks: Transfer from hypoglossalmotoneurons to connected second-order and higher order central nervous system cells groupsJ. Comp. Neurol. 356457–480 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.-Q. Li, M. Takada, and N. Mizuno, Identification of premotor interneurons which project bilaterally to the trigeminal motor, facial or hypoglossal nuclei: A fluorescent retrograde double-labeling study in the ratBrain Res. 611160–164 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Sahara, N. Hashimoto, and Y. Nakamura, Hypoglossal premotor neurons in the rostral medullary parvocellular reticular formation participate in cortically-induced rhythmical tongue movementsNeurosci. Res. 26, 119–131 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Holstege, H. G. J. M. Kuypers, and J. J. Dekker, The organization of the bublar fibre connections to the hypoglossal motor nucleiBrain 100, 256–286 (1977).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Takada, K. Itoh, Y. Yasui, A. Mitani, S. Nomura, and N. Mizuno, Distribution of premotor neurons for the hypoglossal nucleus in the catNeurosci. Lett. 52, 141–146 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    T. Ono, Y. Ishiwata, N. Inaba, T. Kuroda, and Y. Nakamura, Hypoglossal premotor neurons with rhythmical inspiratory-related activity in the cat: Localization and projection to the phrenic nucleusExp. Brain Res. 981–12 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T. Ono, Y. Ishiwata, N. Inaba, T. Kuroda, and Y. Nakamura, Modulation of the inspiratory-related activity of hypoglossal premotor neurons during ingestion and rejection in the decerebrate catJ. Neurophysiol. 80, 48–58 (1998).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. F. Tian, and J. Duffin, Connections from upper cervical inspiratory neurons to phrenic and intercostal motoneurons studied with cross-correlation in the decerebrate ratExp. Brain Res. 110196–204 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. A. Sears, and D. Stagg, Short-term synchronization of intercostal motoneurone activityJ. Physiol. 263357–381 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. Graham, and J. Duffin, Cross correlation of medullary expiratory neurons in the catExptl. Neurol. 73, 451–464 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. A. Douse, J. Duffin, D. Brooks, and L. Fedorko, Role of upper cervical inspiratory neurons studied by cross-correlation in the catExp. Brain Res. 90153–162 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. F. Tian, J. H. Peever, and J. Duffin, Bötzinger-complex expiratory neurons monosynaptically inhibit phrenic motoneurons in the decerebrate ratExp. Brain Res. 122, 149–156 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. D. Green, and K. Negishi, Membrane potentials in hypoglossal motoneuronsJ. Neurophysiol. 26, 835–856 (1963).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Sumi, Functional differentiation of hypoglossal neurons in catsJpn. J. Physiol. 1955–67 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Woch, and L. Kubin, Non-reciprocal control of rhythmic activity in respiratory-modulated XII motoneuronsNeuroReport 6, 2085–2088 (1995).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    D. J. Withington-Wray, S. W. Mifflin, and K. M. Spyer, Intracellular analysis of respiratory-modulated hypoglossal motoneurons in the catNeuroscience 25, 1041–1051 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. F. Tian, J. H. Peever, and J. Duffin, Bötzinger-complex, bulbospinal expiratory neurons monosynaptically inhibit ventral-group respiratory neurons in the decerebrate ratExp. Brain Res. 124173–180 (1999).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. B. Boone, and L. D. Aides, The ultrastructure of two distinct neuron populations in the hypoglossal nucleus of the ratExp. Brain Res. 54321–326 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    N. Takasu, and P. H. Hashimoto, Morphological identification of an interneuron in the hypoglossal nucleus of the rat: A combined golgi-electron microscopic studyJ. Comp. Neurol. 271461–471 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. N. Cooper, The hypoglossal nucleus of the primate: A golgi studyNeurosci. Lett. 21, 249–254 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • John H. Peever
  • James Duffin
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Physiology and AnaesthesiaUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations