MUC1 and MUC-X, Epithelial Mucins of Breast and Milk
While reasons for gross variations in milk composition of the various mammalian species are well established, we will be revealing minor, subtle, yet highly important differences for years to come. One of the distinctive differences of human milk concerns its mucins, MUC1 and MUC-X. These are high molecular mass glycoproteins that occur on the apical surface of the lactating cell and are transferred to the milk fat globule upon its secretion from the cell. Among mammals, it seems that the human has developed the largest, most extended versions of these mucin molecules. Evidence is accumulating that this greater size benefits the human in terms of protection against infections and injurious environmental agents.
KeywordsTandem Repeat Human Milk Epithelial Mucin Human MUCI Lactate Cell
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Buchheim W, Welsch U, Huston GE, Patton S. Glycoprotein filament removal from human milk fat globules by heat treatment. Pediatrics 1987;81:141–146.Google Scholar
- Buchheim W, Welsch U, Patton S. Electron microscopy and carbohydrate histochemistry of the human milk fat globule membrane. In: Hanson LA, editor. Biology of Human Milk. Volume 15, Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. New York: Raven Press; 1988. pp. 27–44.Google Scholar
- Campana WM, Josephson RV, Patton S. Presence and genetic polymorphism of an epithelial mucin in milk of the goat(Capra hircus).Comp Biochem Physiol [B] 1992;103:261–266.Google Scholar
- Carvalho F, Seruca R, David L, Amorim A, Seixas M, Bennet E, Clausen H, Sobrinho-Simoes M. MUC1 gene polymorphism and gastric cancer—an epidemiological study. Glycoconj J 1997;14:107–111.Google Scholar
- Huott ML, Josephson RV, Hens JR, Rogers GW, Patton S. Polymorphic forms of the epithelial mucin, PAS-I (MUC1), in milk of Holstein cows(Bos taurus).Comp Biochem Physiol [B] 1995;111:559–565. Keenan TW, Patton S. The milk lipid globule membrane. In: Jensen RG, editor. Handbook of Milk Composition. San Diego: Academic Press; 1995. pp. 5–50.Google Scholar
- Patton S, Huston GE. Fat globule proteins. In: Atkinson SA, Lonnerdal B, editors. Protein and Non-protein Nitrogen in Human Milk. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1989. pp. 93–114.Google Scholar
- Patton S, Gendler SJ, Spicer AP. The epithelial mucin, MUC1, of milk, mammary gland and other tissues. Biochim Biophy Acta 1995;1241:407–423.Google Scholar
- Peterson JA, Henderson TR, Scallan C, Kiwan R, Mehta NR, Taylor MR, Ceriani RL, Hamosh M. Milk fat globule glycoproteins are present in gastric aspirates of human milk-fed preterm infants. Pediatr Res 1996;39:126A.Google Scholar
- Schroten H, Hanisch FG, Plogmann R, Hacker J, Uhlenbruck G, Nobis-Bosch, R, Wahn V. Inhibition of adhesion of S-fimbriatedEscherichia colito buccal epithelial cells by human milk fat globule membrane components: a novel aspect of the protective function of mucins in the nonimmunoglobulin fraction. Infect Immun 1992;60:2893–2899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spicer AP, Parry G, Patton S, Gendler S. Molecular cloning and analysis of the mouse homologue of the tumor-associated mucin, MUC1, reveals conservation of potential 0-glycosylation sites, trans-membrane, and cytoplasmic domains and a loss of minisatellite-like ploymorphism. J Biol Chem 1991;266:15099–15109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Welsch U, Schumacher U, Buchheim W, Schinko I, Jenness R, Patton S. Histochemical and biochemical observations on milk-fat globule membranes from several mammalian species. Acta Histochem 1990;40:S59—S64.Google Scholar