Advertisement

Presence of Carotenoid, an Anticarcinogenic Marker, in Nipple Aspirates Postlactation

  • Chandice Covington
  • Anne Mitchell-Gieleghem
  • David Lawson
  • Isao Eto
  • Clinton Grubbs
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 501)

Abstract

Case-controlled studies have identified a protective effect of lactation against breast cancer; however, little is known about the nature of this protective mechanism. The purpose of this study was to examine postweaned, nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) from women, ages 18 to 45, for carotenoid, a known antioxidant and anticarcinogenic marker, and compare carotenoid availability in NAF with that reported in colostrum. Women who had lactated at least 6 months and weaned for at least 6 months were recruited into the study. A prestudy and poststudy serum prolactin level was obtained. NAF was obtained through a nipple aspirator method. Total carotenoid ranged from 0.4 to 4.0 µg/mL, with a mean level of 1.9 ± 1.2 (SD). Women who had weaned earlier (<12mo) had significantly more carotenoids than those who had lactated longer (>12mo) (P = 0.04). These levels were similar to those known to occur in colostrum. This research elucidates possible mechanisms of the protective effect of lactation on the microenvironment of the breast.

Keywords

Breast Cancer Total Carotenoid Nipple Aspirate Fluid Carotenoid Level Colostrum Sample 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bendich A. A role for carotenoids in immune functions. Clin Nutr 1988;7:113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buescher ES, Mcllheran SM. Antioxidant properties of human colostrum. Pediatr Res 1988;24:14–19.Google Scholar
  3. Byers T, Graham S, Rzepka T, Marshall J. Lactation and breast cancer: Evidence for a negative association in pre-menopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1985;121:664–674.Google Scholar
  4. Campbell TV. Mimicking nature to develop superior materials. In: Bender DL, editor. What Will Be the Impacts of New Technologies? San Diego: Greenhaven Press; 1996. Chapter 2,21“ Century Earth: Opposing Viewpoints; pp 99–106.Google Scholar
  5. Donegan WL, Spratt JS, editors. Cancer of the Breast. 4’hed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1995.Google Scholar
  6. Dupont W, Page D. Risk factors for breast cancer in women with proliferative disease. N Eng J Med 1985;312:46–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grubbs CJ, Eto I, Juliana MM, Hardin JM, Whitaker LM. Effect of retinyl acetate and 4hydroxyphenylretinamide on initiation of chemically-induced mammary tumors. Anticancer Res 1990;10:661–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. [IM] Institute of Medicine, Subcommittee on Nutrition During Lactation, Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Food and Nutrition Board. Nutrition During Lactation. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  9. Kvãle G, Heuch I. Lactation and cancer risk: Is there a relation specific to breast cancer? J Epidemiol Community Health 1987;42:30–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lawrence R. Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession. 4`hed. St Louis: Mosby; 1994. pp. 91–148: Biochemistry of human milk.Google Scholar
  11. Layde PM, Webster LA, Baughman AL, Wingo PA, Rubin GL, Ory HW. The independent associations of parity, age at first full term pregnancy, and duration of breastfeeding with the risk of breast cancer. J Clin Epidemiol 1989;42:963–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. London SJ, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Rosner BA, Corsano K, Speizer FE. Lactation and risk of breast cancer in a cohort of US women. Am J Epidemiol 1990;132:17–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. McCormickDLMoon RC. Retinoid-tamoxifen interaction in mammary cancer chemoprevention. Carcinogenesis 1986;7:193–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McTiernan A, Thomas DB. Evidence for a protective effect of lactation on risk of breast cancer in young women: Results from a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 1986;124:353–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Murrell TGC. Epidemiological and biochemical support for a theory on the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Med Hypotheses 1991;36:389–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [NCHS] National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 1995. Hyattsville MD: US Public Health Service; 1996.Google Scholar
  17. Patton S, Huston G, Montgomery P, Josephson R. Approaches to the study of colostrum The onset of lactation. In: Hamosh M, Goldman A, editors. Human Lactation 2: Maternal and Environmental Factors. New York: Plenum Press; 1986. pp. 231–239.Google Scholar
  18. Patton S, Canfield LM, Huston GE, Ferris AM, Jensen RG. Carotenoids of human colostrum. Lipids 1990;25:159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Petrakis NL. Physiologic, biochemical, and cytologic aspects of nipple aspirate fluid. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1986;8:7–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Petrakis NL, Mason L, Lee R, Sugiomoto B, Pawson S, Catchpool E Association of race, age, menopausal status, and cerumen type with breast fluids secretions in nonlactating women determined by nipple aspiration. J Natl Cancer Inst 1975;54:829–834.Google Scholar
  21. Petrakis NL, Maack CA, Lee RE, Lyon M. Mutagenic activity in nipple aspirates from human breast fluid. Cancer Res 1980;40:188–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Petrakis NL, Wrensch MR, Ernster VL, Miike R, King EB, Goodson WH. Prognostic significance of atypical epithelial hyperplasia in nipple aspirates of breast fluid. Lancet 1987a; 2:505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Petrakis NL, Wrensch MR, Ernster VL, Miike R, Murai J, Simberg N, Siiteri PK. Influence of pregnancy and lactation on serum and breast fluid estrogen levels: Implications for breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 1987b;40:587–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Petrakis NL, Miike R, King EB, Lee L, Mason L, Chang-Lee B. Association of breast fluid coloration with age, ethnicity, and cigarette smoking. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1988a;11:255–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Petrakis NL, Lee RE, Miike R, Dupuy ME, Morris M. Coloration of breast fluid related to concentration of cholesterol, cholesterol epoxides, estrogen, and lipid peroxides. Am J Clin Pathol 1988b;89:117–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Petrakis NL, Lim ML, Miike R, Lee RE, Morris M, Lee L, Mason L. Nipple aspirate fluids in adult non-lactating women—lactose content, cationic NA+, K+, Na+/K+ ratio, and coloration. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1989;13:71–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pitt GAJ. Vitamin A. In: Diplock AT, editor. Fat soluble vitamins: Their biochemistry and application. Lancaster PA: Technomic Publishing; 1985. pp. 1–61.Google Scholar
  28. Rennison ME, Handel SE, Wilde CJ, BurgoyneRD.Investigation of the role of microtubules in proteinsecretion from lactating mouse mammary epithelial cells. J Cell Sci 1992;102(Pt 2):239–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Reuter KL, Baker SP, Krolikowski FJ. Risk factors for breast cancer in women undergoing mammogra-phy. Am J Roentgen 1992;158:273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rose DP.Hormones in breast fluid. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1986;8:25–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rose DP.Hormones and growth factors in nipple aspirates from normal women and benign breast disease patients. Cancer Detect Prey 1992;16:43–51.Google Scholar
  32. Rose DP, Berke B, Cohen LA, Lahti H. A comparison of serum and breast duct fluid-immunoassayable prolactin and growth hormone with bioassayable lactogenic hormones in healthy women and patients with cystic breast disease. Cancer 1987;60:2761–2765.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Russo J, Furmanski P, Bradley R, Wells P, Rich MA. Differentiation of normal human mammary epithelial cells in culture: An ultrastructural study. Am J Anat 1976;145:57–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sanghera M, Peh W. Breast ductography in the investigation of nipple discharge. Radiography Today 1991;57:15–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. SartoriusOSmith H, Morris P, Benedict D, Friesen L. Cytological evaluation of breast fluid in the detection of breast disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 1977;59:1073–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sauter ER, Daly M, Linahan K, EhyaHEngstrom P, Bonney G, Ross E, Yu H, Diamandis E. Prostate-specific antigen levels in nipple aspirate fluid correlate with breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prey 1996;5:967–970.Google Scholar
  37. Tanaka T, Shiu RP, Gout PW, Beer CT, Noble RI, Friesen HG. A new sensitive and specific bioassay for lactogenic hormones: Measurement of prolactin and growth hormone in human serum. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980;51:1058–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tao SC, Yu MC, Ross RK, Xiu KW. Risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women of Beijing. Int J Cancer 1988;42:495–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vizoso F, Sanchez LM, Diez-Itza I, Luz LM, Lopez-Otin C. Factors affecting protein composition of breast secretions from nonlacting women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1992;23:251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wald NJ, Boreham JL, Hayward JL, Bulbrook RD. Plasma retinol, 13-carotene and vitamin E levels in relation to the future risk of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1984;49:321–324.Google Scholar
  41. Wrensch MR, Petrakis NL, Gruenke LD, Ernster VL, Miike R, King EB, Hauck WW. Factors associated with obtaining nipple aspirate fluid: Analysis of 1428 women and literature review. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1990;15:39–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yuan JM, Yu MC, Ross RK, Gao YT, Henderson BE. Risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women in Shanghai. Cancer Res 1988;48:1949–1953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ziegler RG. A review of epidemiologic evidence that carotenoids reduce the risk of cancer. J Nutr 1989; 119:116–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandice Covington
    • 1
  • Anne Mitchell-Gieleghem
    • 2
  • David Lawson
    • 3
  • Isao Eto
    • 4
  • Clinton Grubbs
    • 4
  1. 1.School of NursingUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.College of NursingWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyWayne State UniversityDetroitUSA
  4. 4.Department of Nutritional SciencesUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations