Advertisement

Prolonged Breast-Feeding (Six Months or More) and Milk Fat Content at Six Months are Associated with Higher Developmental Scores at One Year of Age Within a Breast-Fed Population

  • C. Agostoni
  • F. Marangoni
  • M. Giovannini
  • C. Galli
  • E. Riva
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 501)

Abstract

Since dietary fats may affect brain composition and function in early life, we evaluated developmental indices at 1 year of age in relation to the duration of breast-feeding and the milk fat composition in a breast-fed population. A blinded monitor administered the Bayley test (211dedition) to 1-year-old subjects born at term and exclusively breast-fed for at least 3 months. Weaning foods were introduced from the 5th month onward. Mothers’ milk lipid composition (fat [wt/dL], fatty acid [wt/dL], FA% [% of total fatty acids]) was determined at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Statistics used were Student’s t-test, Pearson’s r, and multiple regression. Forty-four infants out of 95 recruited at birth met inclusion criteria. There was a progressive reduction of the number of breast-fed babies to 29 (6mo), 17 (9mo), and 10 (12mo). Breast-feeding for 6 months or longer gave a 6.6-point advantage (95% confidence interval, —0.6, 13.8; P = 0.07 for the Bayley psychomotor developmental index (PDI) and 2.0 for the Bayley mental developmental index (MDI) (95% confidence interval, -3.2, 7.3; NS) compared with the 15 subjects breast-fed for fewer than 6 months. Among the milk lipid factors, the fat weight (mg/dL) at 6 months showed the highest association

with the MDI (r = 0.55, P = 0.002). Thus, prolonged breast-feeding during the weaning process may result in a better developmental performance at 12 months, possibly due to the supply of fats contributing energy and/or affecting brain composition.

Keywords

Total Fatty Acid Human Milk Docosahexaenoic Acid Milk Lipid Developmental Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agostoni C, Trojan S, Bellù R, Riva E, Giovannini M. Neurodevelopmental quotient of healthy term infants and feeding practice: the role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Pediatr Res 1995;38:262–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bayley N. Bayley scales of infant development. 2nded. The Psychological Corporation. San Antonio: Harcourt Brace; 1993.Google Scholar
  3. Bellù R, Ortisi MT, Incerti P, Mazzoleni V, Martinoli G, Agostoni C, Galluzzo C, Riva E, Giovannini M. Nutritional survey on a sample of one-year-old infants in Milan: intake of macronutrients. Nutr Res 1991;11:1221–1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Farquharson J, Cockburn F, Patrick WA, Jamieson EC, Logan RW. Infant cerebral cortex phospholipid fatty-acid composition and diet. Lancet 1992;340:810–813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Folch J, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GH. A simple method for isolation of total lipids from human tissues. J Biol Chem 1956;226:497–509.Google Scholar
  6. Lanting CI, Boersma ER. Lipids in infant nutrition and their impact on later development. Curr Opin Lipidol 1996;7:43–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Makrides M, Neumann MA, Byard RW, Simmer K, Gibson RA. Fatty acid composition of brain, retina, and erythrocytes in breast-and formula-fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:189–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Makrides M, Neumann M, Simmer K, Pater J, Gibson R. Are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids essen-tial nutrients in infancy? Lancet 1995;345:1463–1468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Makrides M, Neumann MA, Gibson RA. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on breast milk composition. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:352–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Suarez A, Ramirez M, Faus MJ, Gil A. Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids influence tissue fatty acid composition in rats at weaning. J Nutr 1996;126:887–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Agostoni
    • 1
  • F. Marangoni
    • 2
  • M. Giovannini
    • 1
  • C. Galli
    • 2
  • E. Riva
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsSan Paolo HospitalMilanItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Pharmacological SciencesUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations