Auxin- and GTP-binding Proteins and Protein Kinases from the Protonema of the Moss Funaria hygrometrica

  • M. M. Johri
  • Kishore C. Panigrahi
  • J. S. D’Souza
  • D. Mitra


The protonema of mosses such as Funaria hygrometrica Hedw., Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. have been widely employed as paradigms to study the responses to plant hormones, light, gravity and abiotic stresses because the responses are rapid, discernible in single cells and thus cell autonomous. In many respects the protonema system is proving an excellent system to analyze signal transduction events. All phases of protonema development are regulated basically by light, gravity, temperature and the two phytohormones - auxin and cytokinin. The third hormone - abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits cell division and is believed to mediate responses to abiotic stresses (Bopp and Werner 1993). It could also be involved in the adaptation of mosses to abiotic stresses. Auxin and cytokinin regulate the protonemal development by directing or specifying the developmental potential of progeny cells to a predictable terminal fate. Although the major groups of phytohormones are ubiquitously distributed in plants, it is only starting from some of the bryophytes that well-defined responses to auxin, cytokinin and ABA have been found and it is conceivable that the hormone perception and action mechanisms evolved at the level of bryophytes. These hormones and ethylene occur naturally in several liverworts and mosses (reviewed in Bopp 1990, Johri 1990). There is no evidence for the occurrence and specific pharmacological effects of gibberellins in bryophytes as yet.


Plant Growth Substance CDPK Gene Auxin Binding Ceratodon Purpureus Funaria Hygrometrica 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. M. Johri
    • 1
  • Kishore C. Panigrahi
    • 2
  • J. S. D’Souza
    • 1
  • D. Mitra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesTata Institute of Fundamental ResearchMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.PflanzenbiotechnologieUniversität FreiburgFreiburg i.Br.Germany

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