Advertisement

Auxin- and GTP-binding Proteins and Protein Kinases from the Protonema of the Moss Funaria hygrometrica

  • M. M. Johri
  • Kishore C. Panigrahi
  • J. S. D’Souza
  • D. Mitra

Abstract

The protonema of mosses such as Funaria hygrometrica Hedw., Physcomitrella patens (Hedw.) B.S.G. and Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. have been widely employed as paradigms to study the responses to plant hormones, light, gravity and abiotic stresses because the responses are rapid, discernible in single cells and thus cell autonomous. In many respects the protonema system is proving an excellent system to analyze signal transduction events. All phases of protonema development are regulated basically by light, gravity, temperature and the two phytohormones - auxin and cytokinin. The third hormone - abscisic acid (ABA), inhibits cell division and is believed to mediate responses to abiotic stresses (Bopp and Werner 1993). It could also be involved in the adaptation of mosses to abiotic stresses. Auxin and cytokinin regulate the protonemal development by directing or specifying the developmental potential of progeny cells to a predictable terminal fate. Although the major groups of phytohormones are ubiquitously distributed in plants, it is only starting from some of the bryophytes that well-defined responses to auxin, cytokinin and ABA have been found and it is conceivable that the hormone perception and action mechanisms evolved at the level of bryophytes. These hormones and ethylene occur naturally in several liverworts and mosses (reviewed in Bopp 1990, Johri 1990). There is no evidence for the occurrence and specific pharmacological effects of gibberellins in bryophytes as yet.

Keywords

Plant Growth Substance CDPK Gene Auxin Binding Ceratodon Purpureus Funaria Hygrometrica 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ainapure, S. D., 1998, M.Sc Thesis — Studies on the abscisic acid and stress-induced proteins in the protonema of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India.Google Scholar
  2. Ashton, N.W., Grimsley, N.H., and Dove, D.J., 1979, Analysis of gametophytic development in the moss Physcomitrella patens, using auxin and cytokinin resistant mutants. Planta 144: 427–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bopp, M., 1953, Die Wirkung von Heteroauxin auf Protonemawachstum und Knospenbildung von Funaria hygrometrica. Z. Bot. 33: 1–16.Google Scholar
  4. Bopp, M., 1990, Plant hormones in lower plants. In Plant Growth Substances 1988 (R. P.Pharis and S. B. Rood, eds.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bopp, M., Jahn, H., and Klein, B., 1964, Eine einfache Methode, das Substrat während der Entwicklung von Moosprotonemen zu wechseln. Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 33: 219–223.Google Scholar
  6. Bopp, M., Quader, H., Thoni, Sawidis, Th., and Schnepf, E., 1991, Filament disruption in Funaria protonemata. I. Formation and disintegration of tmema cells. J. Plant Physiol. 137: 273–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bopp, M., and Werner, O., 1993, Abscisic acid and desiccation tolerance in mosses. Bot.Acta. 106: 103–106.Google Scholar
  8. Cove, D. J., and Ashton, N.W., 1984, The Hormonal Regulation of Gametophytic Development in Bryophytes. In The Experimental Biology of Bryophytes (A.F. Dyer and J. G. Duckett, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 177–201.Google Scholar
  9. Devitt, M.L., Kass, K.J., and Stafstrom, J.P., 1999, Characterization of DRGs, developmentally regulated GTP-binding proteins, from pea and Arabidopsis. Plant Mol.Biol. 39: 75–82.Google Scholar
  10. D’Souza, J.S, and Johri, M.M., 1999, Ca2+dPKs from the protonema of the moss Funariahygrometrica. Effect of IAA and cultural parameters on the activity of a 44 kDa Ca2+dPK. Plant Sci. 145:23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D’Souza, J.S, and Johri, M.M., 2000, ABA and NaCl activate myelin basic protein kinase activity in the chloronema cells of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. Submitted.Google Scholar
  12. Dohrmann, U., Hertel, R., and Kowalik, H., 1978, Properties of auxin binding sites in different subcellular fractions from maize coleoptiles. Planta 140: 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goode, J.A., Stead, A.D. and Duckett, J.G., 1992, Redifferentiation of moss protonemata — An experimental and immunofluorescence study of brood cell formation. Can. J. Bot. 71: 1510–1519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gorton B.S., and Eakin, R.E., 1957, Development of the gametophyte in the moss Tortellacaespitosa. Bot. Gaz. 119: 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Handa, A.K., and Johri, M.M., 1976, Cell differentiation by 3–,5–-cyclic AMP in a lower plant. Nature 259: 480–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Handa, A.K., and Johri, M.M., 1979, Involvement of cyclic adenosine-3–,5–-monophosphate in chloronema differentiation in protonema cultures of Funaria hygrometrica. Planta 144: 317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hintermann, R., and Parish, R. W., 1979, Determination of adenylate cyclase activity in a variety of organisms: evidence against the occurrence of enzyme in higher plants. Planta 146:459–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jacobs, M., and Hertel, R., 1978, Auxin binding to subcellular fractions from Cucurbita hypocotyls: In vitro evidence for an auxin transport carrier. Planta 142: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johri, M.M., 1974, Differentiation of caulonema cells by auxins in suspension cultures of Funaria hygrometrica. In Plant Growth Substances Hirokawa Publishing Co., Tokyo, pp. 925–933.Google Scholar
  20. Johri, M.M., 1990, Hormonal regulation of development and differentiation in lower plants. In Proc. Intl. Congr.of Plant Physiology (S.K. Sinha, P.V. Sane, S.C. Bhargava and P.K. Agrawal, eds), In Print Exclusives, New Delhi, pp. 760–775.Google Scholar
  21. Johri, M.M., and Desai, S., 1973, Auxin regulation of caulonema formation in moss protonema. Nature New Biology 245: 223–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Johri, M.M., and D’Souza, J.S., 1990, Auxin regulation of cell differentiation in moss protonema. In Plant Growth Substances (R.P. Pharis and S.Rood, eds.), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 407–418.Google Scholar
  23. Johri, M.M., Panigrahi, K.C., and D’Souza, J.S., 1997, G-proteins, auxin-binding proteins and Ca2+/CAM-dependent protein kinases from the protonema of the moss Funaria. Abstract No. 783. 5th Intl. Congr.Plant Mol. Biol., Singapore, Sept. 21–27, 1997Google Scholar
  24. Kehlenbach, R.H., Matthey, J., and Huttner, W.B., 1994, XLαs is a new type of G protein. Nature 372: 804–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Knight, CD., Sehgal, A., Atwal, K., Wallace, J.C., Dove, D.J., Coates, D., Quatrano, R.S., Bahadur, S., Stockley, P., and Cuming, A.C., 1995, Molecular responses to abscisic acid and osmotic stress are conserved between mosses and cereals. Plant’Cell 7: 499–506.Google Scholar
  26. Lee, Y-Ru J., and Assmann, S. M., 1999, Arabidopsis thaliana extra-large GTP-binding protein (AtXLGl): a new class of G-protein. Plant Mol. Biol. 40: 55–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leng, Q., Mercier, R.W., Yao, W., and Berkowitz, G.A., 1999, Cloning and first functional characterization of a plant cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel. Plant Physiol. 121: 753–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Panigrahi, K.C.S., 1998, PhD Thesis — Studies on the Auxin binding and GTP-bindingProteins in Plants. University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India.Google Scholar
  29. Panigrahi, K.C.S., and Johri, M.M., 1998, Improved methods to detect GTP-binding proteins from plants. J. of Bioscience 23: 193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reski, R., Reynolds, S., Wehe, M., Kleber-Janke, T., and Kruse, S., 1997, Moss (Physcomitrella patens) expressed sequence tags include several sequences which are novel for plants. Bot. Acta 111: 1–7.Google Scholar
  31. Rose, S., and Bopp, M., 1983, Uptake and polar transport of indoleacetic acid in moss rhizoids. Physiol. Plant. 58: 57–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saunders, M.J., and Hepler, P.K., 1982, Calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates cytokinin like mitosis in Funaria. Science 217: 943–945.Google Scholar
  33. Schaefer, D.G., and Zryd, J.-P., 1997, Efficient gene targeting in the moss Physcomitrellapatens.Plant J. 11: 1195–1206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schumaker, K.S., and Dietrich, M.A., 1998, Hormone-induced signaling during moss development. Annu.Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 49: 501–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schumaker, K.S., and Gizinski, M.J., 1996, G-proteins regulate dihydropyridine binding to moss plasma membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 21292–21296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sharma, S.and Johri, M.M., 1982, Partial purification and characterization of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases from Funaria hygrometrica.Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 217: 87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Spiess, L.D., Lippincott, B.B., and Lippincott, J.A., 1976, Comparative effects of growth substances and Agrobacterium on the moss protonema to gametophore phase change. J.Hattori Bot. Lab. 41: 185–192.Google Scholar
  38. Wang, H., Lockwood, S.K. Hoeltzel, M.F., and Schiefelbein, J.W., 1997, The root hair defective 3 gene encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein with GTP-binding motifs and is required for regulated cell enlargement in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 11: 799–811.Google Scholar
  39. Werner, O., Ros Espin, R.M. Bopp, M., and Atzorn, R., 1991, ABA induced drought tolerance in Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. Planta 186: 99–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. M. Johri
    • 1
  • Kishore C. Panigrahi
    • 2
  • J. S. D’Souza
    • 1
  • D. Mitra
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesTata Institute of Fundamental ResearchMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.PflanzenbiotechnologieUniversität FreiburgFreiburg i.Br.Germany

Personalised recommendations