Effects of Uncontrolled Seizures

Neural Changes in Animal Models
  • Carl E. Stafstrom
  • Gregory L. Holmes
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 497)


Children with epilepsy are at significant risk for a variety of problems involving cognition and behavior. The distribution of IQ scores is skewed toward lower values43,77 and the number of children requiring special education services varies from 10 to 33 per cent.77,78,79 Several authors have observed that seizures beginning in early childhood are associated with a higher risk of intellectual impairment than seizures beginning in late childhood or in the teenage years.36,54,55 Behavioral and psychiatric disorders in children with epilepsy are also higher than in the general population, with surveys demonstrating that the prevalence of psychiatric disease is two to four times greater among children with epilepsy than in controls.77,78,79 While the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities may often be explained by the etiological factors responsible for the epilepsy, there is evidence that some children with poorly controlled epilepsy have progressive declines of IQ on serial intelligence tests60,65,170 and behavioral and psychiatric deterioration over time. Whether this decline is secondary to antiepileptic medications, progression of the underlying encephalopathy responsible for the seizures, or the seizures per se, is not certain.


NMDA Receptor Status Epilepticus Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Excitatory Amino Acid Mossy Fiber 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl E. Stafstrom
    • 1
  • Gregory L. Holmes
    • 2
  1. 1.CSCDepartment of Neurology H4/614Madison
  2. 2.Division of Clinical NeurophysiologyChildren’s Hospital Harvard Medical SchoolBoston

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