Advertisement

Laboratory Testing in Diabetes Mellitus

  • Michael Leroux
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 498)

Abstract

Diabetes is a common chronic and serious disease with the estimate that as many as 10% of Canadian adults have diabetes (1). All definitions of diabetes include some measure of hyperglycemia. Laboratory tests are used to screen for, diagnose and monitor diabetes. The test menu includes blood (plasma) measurement of glucose, ketone bodies and glycated proteins and urine glucose ketone bodies and microalbumin. This paper will discuss the use of these tests in screening for, diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. Test characteristics such as cost, ease of use etc, to be considered in test selection will also be discussed. The patient populations to be considered are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics.

Keywords

Plasma Glucose Oral Glucose Tolerance Test American Diabetes Association Ketone Body Glycated Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Canadian Diabetes Association: Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Diabetes in Canada, CMAJ.: 159 (8 suppl.) (1998).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Diabetes Association: Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Care: 20:1183–1197 (1997).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M.I. Harris, W.C. Hadden, W.C. Knowler, P.H. BennettPrevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Plasma Glucose Levels in the U.S. Population Aged 20–74 yrs, Diabetes: 36: 523534 (1987).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B.S. Sacks, Carbohydrate In, C.A. Burtis, E.R. Ashwood, eds., Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: p. 972 (1994).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.L. Hanson, R.G. Nelson, D.R. McCance, J.A. Heart, M.A. Charles, D.J. Pettitt, W.C. Knowler, Comparison of Screening Tests for Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, Arch. Intern Med: 153: 2133–2140 (1993).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American Diabetes Association: Screening for Type 2 Diabetes (Position Statement), Diabetes Care: 22 (1 suppl)(1999).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    National Diabetes Data Group: Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Other Categories of Glucose Intolerance, Diabetes: 28: 1039–1057 (1979).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B.S. Sacks, Carbohydrate In, C.A. Burtis, E.R. Ashwood, eds., Tietz Texbook of Clinical Chemistry, WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: p 947 (1994).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.R. McCance, R.L. Hanson, D.J. Pettitt, P.H. Bennett, D.R. Hadden, W.C. Knowler, Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus: Do We Need New Criteria?; Diabetologia: 40: 247–255 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M.I. Harris, W.C. Hadden, W.C. Knowler, P.H. Bennett, Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Plasma Glucose Tolerance and Plasma Glucose Levels in the U.S. Population Aged 20–74 yrs., Diabetes: 36: 523–534 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 1.
    I. J.M. Mooy, P.A. Gootenhuis, H. De Uries, P.J. Kostense, C. Popp-Snijders, L.M. Bouter, R.J. Heine, Infra-Individual Variation of Glucose, Specific Insulin and Proinsulin Concentrations Measured by Two Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests in General Caucasian Populations: the Hoorn Study, Diabetologia: 39: 298–305 (1996).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group: The Effect of Intensive Treatment of Diabetes on the Development and Progression of Long-Term Complications in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, NEnglJMed: 329: 977–986 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D.E. Goldstein, R.R. Little, Monitoring Glycemia in Diabetes: Short-Term Assessment, Endocr. and Metab. Clinics of N.A.: 26:475–486 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    American Diabetes Association: Tests of Glycemia in Diabetes (position statement),Diabetes Care: 20 (1 suppl): 518 (1997).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    American Diabetes Association: Standards of Medical Care for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (position statement), Diabetes Care: 20 (1 suppl): 55 (1997).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    American Diabetes Association: Diabetic Nephropathy (position statement), Diabetes Care: 22 (1 Suppl): 66–69 (1999).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D.W. Allen, W.A. Schroeder, J. BalogObservations on the Chromatographic Heterogeneity of Normal Adult and Fetal Human Hemoglobin, JAm Chem Soc: 80: 1628–1634 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. RahbarAn Abnornal Hemoglobin in Red Cells of Diabetics, Clin Chem Acta: 22:296–298 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Rahbar, O. Blumenfeld, H.M. Ranney, Studies of An Unusual Hemoglobin in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus, Biochem Biophys Res Commun: 36: 838–843 (1969).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    American Diabetes Association: Test of Glycemia in Diabetes. (position statement) Diabetis Care: 22 (1 Suppl): 77–79 (1999).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Leroux
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical ChemistryHealth Sciences CentreWinnipeg

Personalised recommendations