Pulse Expansion and Soliton-Like Propagation of Ultrahigh Intense Short Pulse Laser
Recent developments of laser technology have made it possible to generate ultrahigh intense subpicosecond pulses, and experiments are now being carried out to explore new regimes of relativistic laser-plasma interactions [1, 2, 3]. When the plasma is irradiated by such intense lasers, electrons oscillating in the field of the laser wave are strongly relativistic. It was predicted that the ultrahigh intense laser would be able to propagate into a sufficiently overdense plasma by the relativistic electron mass correction and hence decreasing the effective electron plasma frequency [4, 5, 6]. Recently, it was reported that an s-polarized wave interacting with a sharp-boundary plasma has excited an electromagnetic nonlinear pulse with relativistic amplitude propagating into the overdense plasma , and the transition between an opacity and a transparency regime for the propagation of the ultrahigh intense laser into overdense plasmas has been discussed . The recession velocity was found to be significantly reduced due to the relaxation-oscillation of the penetration that was coupled with the electron density oscillation at the laser front. The intensity threshold for the penetration was also found to depend on both plasma density and ion dynamics that was characterized by the ion acoustic speed .
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