Molecular Characterization of IL-1-Like Molecules From Lower Vertebrates and Invertebrates

  • Gregory Beck
  • Nobel Truong
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 484)


The immune system plays a crucial role in protecting the host from attack by foreign pathogens. The evolution of defense mechanisms can be traced back through the invertebrates (Abbaset al.1997). Vertebrate host defense mechanisms have evolved from their invertebrate ancestors (Sima and Vetvicka, 1993). In vertebrates there are two specific arms of the immune response, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The central mediators of the humoral response are antibodies, defense molecules present in body fluid such as blood, mucus, and milk. The cell-mediated response is mediated by the lymphocytes, cells that recognize and respond to foreign antigens.


Percent Amino Acid Human Amino Acid Lymphocyte Activate Factor High Affinity Plasma Membrane High Affinity Plasma Membrane Receptor 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory Beck
    • 1
  • Nobel Truong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of Massachusetts — BostonBoston

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