Crystal Structure and Point Defects

  • Joginder Singh Galsin
Part of the Physics of Solids and Liquids book series (PSLI)

Abstract

Matter exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. At sufficiently low temperature, all forms of matter condense to form a solid. The most remarkable property of the solid state of matter is that the constituent atoms of a great many solids, in the pure form, arrange themselves in a periodic fashion. Such solid materials are called crystalline solids. In reality, however, it is not possible to obtain a 100% pure solid. Natural crystalline solids normally contain 1% or more impurities. Industrially prepared crystalline solids of some elements can be created with an impurity concentration of one part in 106 and in some semiconductors with an impurity concentration down to one part in 1011. Crystalline solids with impurities are thus of utmost importance from both fundamental and technological points of view as a small amount of impurity may produce a large variation in the electronic properties of the solids. In this chapter, we describe elementary concepts of crystal structure with particular emphasis on solids with cubic structure. The concept of solid solutions is introduced and the geometry around different kinds of point defects in cubic solids is discussed.

Keywords

Migration Carbide Hexagonal Nitrides Halide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Suggested Reading

  1. Ashcnoft, N. W., and Mermin, N. D., 1976, Solid State Physics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York).Google Scholar
  2. Azaroff, L. V., 1960, Introduction to Solids (Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi).Google Scholar
  3. Barrett, C., and Massalski, T. B., 1966, Structure of Metals (McGraw—Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  4. Fan, H. Y., 1987, Elements of Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  5. Harrison, W. A., 1970, Solid State Theory (McGraw—Hill, New York).Google Scholar
  6. Henderson, H., 1972, Defects in Crystalline Solids (Crane, Russack, New York).Google Scholar
  7. Hume-Rothery, W., 1944, Structure of Metals and Alloys (Institute of Metals, London).Google Scholar
  8. Kittel, C., 1976, Introduction to Solid State Physics (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  9. Koster, G. F., 1957, in Solid State Physics, edited by Seitz, F., and Turnbull, D. (Academic Press, New York). Moffatt, W. G., Pearsall, G. W., and Wulff, J., 1964, The Structure and Properties of Materials, Vol. 1 (Wiley, New York).Google Scholar
  10. Seeger, A., Schumacher, D., Schilling, W., and Dielh, J., 1970, Vacancies and Interstitials in Metals (North—Holland, Amsterdam).Google Scholar
  11. Wannier, G. H., 1959, Elements of Solid State Theory (Cambridge University Press, London).MATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Wernick, J., 1965, in Advanced Physical Metallurgy, edited by Cahn, R. W. (North—Holland, Amsterdam)Google Scholar

References

  1. Friedel, J., 1958, Nuovo Cimento (Suppl.) 2, 287.Google Scholar
  2. Hägg, G. 1930, Z. Phys. Chem. B11, 433;Google Scholar
  3. Hägg, G. 1931, Z. Phys. Chem. B12, 33.Google Scholar
  4. Hume-Rothery W., 1926, J. Inst. Metals 35, 295–307.Google Scholar
  5. Kriessling, R., 1950, Acta Chem. Scand. 4, 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Norton, J. T. and Mowry, A. L., 1949, Trans. AIME 185, 133.Google Scholar
  7. Wernick J., 1965, in Advanced Physical Metallurgy, edited by Cahn, R. W. (North—Holland, Amsterdam).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joginder Singh Galsin
    • 1
  1. 1.Punjab Agricultural UniversityPunjabIndia

Personalised recommendations